6 1 all organisms are made of cells n.
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6.1 All organisms are made of cells. I. The Cell Theory. In 1655 Robert Hooke observed “compartments” in a thin slice of cork which he named cells In 1700 Anton van Leeuwenhoek had developed light microscopes to observe tiny living organisms which he named “animalcules”. First microscopes.

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i the cell theory
I. The Cell Theory
  • In 1655 Robert Hooke observed “compartments” in a thin slice of cork which he named cells
  • In 1700 Anton van Leeuwenhoek had developed light microscopes to observe tiny living organisms which he named “animalcules”
the cell theory
The Cell Theory

C. Cell theory is the generalization that all living things are composed of cells, and that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things

ii microscopes as windows to cells
II. Microscopes as Windows to Cells
  • Light microscopes can magnify objects up to about 1,000 X
  • Electron microscopes can magnify objects up to about 1,000,000 X

C. A photograph of the view taken through a microscope is called a micrograph


SEM- scanning electron microscope

TEM- transmission

Both must use preserved specimens.

iii an overview of animal and plant cells
III. An Overview of Animal and Plant Cells
  • Each part of a cell with a specific job to do is called an organelle

B. The plasma membrane defines the boundary of the cell and regulates traffic in and out of the cell

overview of animal and plant
Overview of animal and plant
  • The nucleus stores the genetic material of the cell

D. The region of the cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane is called the cytoplasm

iv two major classes of cells
IV. Two Major Classes of Cells
  • A prokaryotic cell lacks a nucleus and most other organelles

B. A eukaryotic cell has a membrane bound nucleus and organelles

i membrane structure
I. Membrane Structure
  • Membranes regulate the transport of substances across it
  • Membranes are composed mostly of proteins and phospholipids
membrane structure
Membrane structure
  • The phospholipids form a two-layer sandwich called a “phospholipid bilayer” which surrounds the organelle or cell

D. The membranes are fluid-like rather than sheets of molecules locked rigidly into place

ii the many functions of membrane proteins
II. The Many Functions of Membrane Proteins
  • Many types of proteins are embedded in the membranes phospholipid bilayer

B. Some proteins carry out some of the cells important chemical reactions, others helps cell communicate and recognize each other, other proteins move substances like sugar and water across the membrane

i diffusion
I. Diffusion
  • Diffusion is the net movement of the particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated

B. Equilibrium is reached when the movement of particles in one direction is equal to the number of particles moving in the other

ii passive transport
II. Passive Transport
  • A selectively permeable membrane allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether
passive transport
Passive transport
  • Diffusion across a membrane is called passive transport because no energy is expended by the cell, only the random motion of molecules is required to move them across

C. Facilitated diffusion is when transport proteins provide a pathway for certain molecules to pass

passive transport1
Passive transport

Carbon dioxide, oxygen- nonpolar

Water, glucose - polar molecules

iii osmosis
III. Osmosis
  • The passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis
  • A solution with a higher concentration of solute is called hypertonic hyper = “above”

C. A solution with a lower concentration of solute is called hypotonic hypo = “below”

iii osmosis1
III. Osmosis

D. A solution that has an equal concentration of solute is called isotonic iso = “equal”

  • When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution it swells
  • - When an animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution it shrinks
iv active transport
IV. Active Transport
  • When a cell expends energy to move molecules or ions across a membrane it is called active transport

B. A specific transport protein pumps a solute across a membrane, usually in the opposite direction it travels in diffusion

active transport
Active Transport

Sodium / potassium pump

v transport of large molecules
V. Transport of Large Molecules
  • Large molecules have to be packed into vesicles, which are small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of and within a cell
transport of large molecules
Transport of large molecules
  • When a cell exports its protein products, a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and spills its contents outside the cell-a process called exocytosis
  • The reverse process, endocytosis, takes materials into the cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane
mrs potts day 1
Mrs. Potts - Day 1
  • The Mrs. Potts, a 62-year-old female is admitted to the hospital with increased fatigue, lethargy, and occasional confusion from chronic uremia secondary to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The client has a long history of diabetes mellitus resulting in permanent damage to the kidneys. Diagnostic test ordered include: Renal scan and ultrasound, bloodwork, a urine test, and fingerstick blood sugars
mrs potts day 3
Mrs. Potts - Day 3

The client's renal status has continued to deteriorate. Creatinine clearance is 6 ml per minutes and the client is showing evidence of retaining fluid despite conservative measure to restrict fluid. Blood Pressure is 160/96 (Normal is 120/80), weight has increased by 5 lbs. Since admission, swelling is noted in ankles and feet, fine crackles are present bilaterally heard in bases of lungs. The doctor has prepared the client for the possibility of hemodialysis.

mrs potts discharge
Mrs. Potts - Discharge

The client had an internal arteriovenous fistula surgically created two days ago. She will receive hemodialysis through a temporary access catheter in her right subclavian until the fistula is ready for use. The nurse schedules the client for dialysis at the outpatient dialysis center three times per week. The dietitian has met with the client and instructed her on fluid, sodium, and potassium restriction and a low protein, 2000 calorie diabetic diet. Mrs. Potts lives alone on a fixed income. She expresses concern regarding her ability to get to the dialysis center three times per week and her financial ability to afford the dialysis.

mrs potts question
Mrs. Potts - Question

Mrs. Potts may not do well on dialysis, then a renal transplant may be the only other option. Considering the scarcity of donor organs, she will be placed on a waiting list with many others. Recently, there has been public debate about donor organs being given to someone who may have damaged their organs through drug abuse or chronic alcoholism. How do you feel about this matter? What are some of the issues that must be considered in such a debate

organ recipients
Organ Recipients

-16 yr old athlete - football scholarship

-24 yr old pregnant female

-30 yr old HIV positive mother of 3

-70 yr old grandmother of 20 grandkids

-32 yr old lawyer for the supreme court

-40 yr old alcoholic who is in rehab

-49 yr old religious leader

-36 yr old successful actor/rap artist

organ recipients1
Organ Recipients

-16 yr old athlete – from GlenOak HS got killed in a DUI accident

-24 yr old pregnant female- prostitute and murderer

-30 yr old HIV positive mother of 3 – Doctor working on the cure for HIV

-70 yr old grandmother of 20 grandkids- your grandma

-32 yr old lawyer for the supreme court- argued Brown v. Board of Ed

-40 yr old alcoholic who is in rehab- Dr. Bob founder of AA

-49 yr old religious leader- Martin Luther King Jr. or Billy Graham

-36 yr old successful actor/rap artist- Ice Cube

i structure and function of the nucleus
I. Structure and Function of the Nucleus

A. The nucleus in a cell contains DNA which controls all of the activities inside the cell

B. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope which has hole in it which allow substances to pass in and out of the nucleus

C. Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus which contains parts necessary to make ribosomes

ii ribosomes
II. Ribosomes
  • DNA codes for the production of proteins which are made in the ribosomes

B. The ribosomes are either bound to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum or suspended in the cytoplasm

iii the endoplasmic reticulum
III. The Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive network of membranes which functions as the main manufacturing and transportation facility in the cell

1. Rough ER-The rough ER has ribosomes which insert proteins right into or through the ER membrane or packaged in vesicles and transported outside the cell

endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum

2. Smooth ER-The smooth ER lacks ribosomes but enzymes in the smooth ER allow it to make lipid molecules

iv the golgi apparatus
IV. The Golgi Apparatus

A. The golgi apparatus receives products from the ER and modifies, stores and routes proteins and other products to their final destination

B. This organelle is analogous to a processing a shipping center of the cell

v vacuoles
V. Vacuoles
  • The cytoplasm has large, membrane bound sacs called vacuoles

B. Some vacuoles contain undigested nutrients, some pump out excess water that diffuses into a cell, others store chemicals that contribute to cell growth

vi lysosomes
VI. Lysosomes
  • Membrane bound sacs called lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that can break down such molecules like proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides

B. Lysosomes will digest food, destroy bacteria and digest damaged organelles

v membrane pathways in a cell
V. Membrane Pathways in a cell
  • The membranes inside a cell are transferable from one organelle to another

B. Products may leave a cell without ever crossing a membrane

i chloroplasts
I. Chloroplasts
  • Chloroplasts are the photosynthetic organelles found in some cells of plants and algae
  • Photosynthesis is a complex, multi-step process and the chloroplasts provides the necessary organization for the process to take place

C. Inside the chloroplasts are disks that act as the “power pack”

  • Chloroplasts are the photosynthetic organelles found in some cells of plants and algae
  • Photosynthesis is a complex, multi-step process and the chloroplasts provides the necessary organization for the process to take place

C. Inside the chloroplasts are disks that act as the “power pack”

ii mitochondria
II. Mitochondria

A. Mitochondria are structures where cellular respiration occurs, a process that most organisms use to access energy

  • ATP is the main energy source for the cell and is the end result of cellular respiration

C. Mitochondria have many infoldings which allows for a larger surface area which results in more sites for respiration to take place

i the cytoskeleton
I. The Cytoskeleton
  • Straight hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape and organization to a cell are called microtubules

B. Thin solid rods of protein that enable the cell to move or change shape are called microfilaments

ii flagella and cilia
II. Flagella and Cilia
  • Flagella are long, thin whip-like structures with a core of microtubules that enables the cell to move

B. Cilia are generally shorter and more numerous than flagella and move back and forth and moves a cell

iii the cell as a coordinated unit
III.The Cell as a Coordinated Unit
  • It is important to remember that a cell’s organelles do not work alone

B. The structure of a cell and its organelles determine its function and all the individual parts must work together

sa 2 4 pts total
SA 2 ( 4 pts total)

Draw a single cell.

Label the nucleus.

Is this a plant or animal cell - how do you know?

bonus 4 pts
Bonus (4 pts)

Draw one organism.

Label any visible structures.

What are the structures used for?