5 1 all organisms are composed of cells n.
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5.1 All organisms are composed of cells. 3 main features: plasma membrane nucleus or nucleoid cytoplasm. amoeba. neuron. sperm & egg. skeletal muscle. A plasma membrane surrounds all cells. bilayer fluid mosaic Singer, Nicolson 1972. Genetic Information. DNA.

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5 1 all organisms are composed of cells
5.1 All organisms are composed of cells

3 main features:

plasma membrane

nucleus or nucleoid

cytoplasm

amoeba

neuron

sperm & egg

skeletal muscle

a plasma membrane surrounds all cells
A plasma membrane surrounds all cells

bilayer

fluid

mosaic

Singer, Nicolson 1972

genetic information
Genetic Information

DNA

eukaryotes

prokaryotes

DNA as chromosomes during cell division

nucleoid

plasmids

1 Circular chromosomal DNA

2 Extra-chromosomal plasmid DNA

cell discovery theory
Cell Discovery/Theory

cells from

cells

cells are the unit of structure and function

cell walls of cork

‘little animicules’

why are cells small
Why are cells small?

The membrane (surface) must allow for sufficient

& rapid exchange to support the cell contents

As an object increases

in size…

Volumeincreases as the

cube (x3) of its diameter

while

surface areaincreases

as the square (y2)

25

25

25

prokaryotic vs eukaryotic
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic

Features in

common

Unique to

eukaryotes,

organelles

allow for

division

of labor

large & complex

organelles, chromosomes

cytoskeleton

1.5bya

small & simple

ribosomes, nucleoid

peptidoglycan wall

3.5bya

slide7

Prokaryotes:

so what?

Decomposition nutrition

disease sewage treatment digestion

soil contamination clean up

nutrient recycling symbiosis normal flora

Energy transformers history of life

genetic engineering human health

slide8

The Plasma Membrane is built primarily of Phospholipids

Charged phosphate creates a polar ‘head’

H-C tails are non-polar, hydrophobic

An amphipathic molecule

slide9

Phospholipid molecules self-organize, tails avoiding water of both the cytoplasm and the environment

creates a bilayer

tails a barrier to charged ions and polar molecules

slide10

Membrane proteins

move molecules across

membrane stability

facilitate rxns

bind cells tightly together

keeps molecules from ‘escaping’ from tissues

channels,

carriers, aquaporins

relay information

in/out of cell

TIGHT JUNCTIONS

slide11

Membrane as Mosaic

Steroids – cholesterol in animal cells – modify the fluidity of the membrane so it stays intact at both warm and cold temperatures.

Glycoprotiens and glycolipids function in cell to cell attachment, recognition, and cell signaling