The main idea and topic sentence Indent the first word/line of each new paragraph. • Main Idea- the driving force or purpose of your paragraph. The topic you are discussing. • The topic sentence – States the MAIN IDEA; it focuses the paragraph. It drives and controls the paragraph. Often the first sentence of the paragraph. It should ENGAGE the reader’s interest.
EXAMPLES • The road to the National Championship is a long one, but the Ohio State Buckeyes are up to the journey. • Hot, delicious and cheesy, pizza is a classic American delicacy!
Body/Supporting Details • Sensory Details – words and phrases that appeal to the five senses. These sentences tell how things look, sound, taste, feel and smell. They help the reader EXPERIENCE what you are writing. • Example – The spicy tomato sauce singed the top of my mouth as I bit into the thick, buttery crust of the Luigi’s pizza pie!
Facts and Statistics – statements that can be proven through observation, experience or reference. Often RESEARCH based. • Example – According to Food Magazine, a whopping 81% of Americans claim that pizza is their favorite food.
Examples – Just what the title implies – examples that support your argument! There are many excellent pizza eateries in the Akron area; for example, Luigi’s, Donatos, and Bellacinos are all fine places to pick up a piece of pie!
And at the end of each paragraph…. • Concluding Sentence – Each paragraph should end with a concluding sentence that sums up your main points, clarifies your main idea, and if possible, also has some interest or significance to it.
Elements of a good paragraph • UNITY – All sentences support the main idea. NO sentence strays from the topic or discusses something unrelated. • COHERENCE – all sentences are logically related to one another. Each sentence is linked to the sentence before and after it.
Point of View IS…..the perspective from which the paragraph is written • 1st person – “I” tells the story. The narrator is part of the action/description. Uses pronouns like “I,” “me,” “us,” and “we.” Most often seen in 1st person story telling or persuasive writing, though 3rd person is also VERY suitable for these types of writing.
2nd person – “You” tells the story. (There is very little reason you would ever write in this pt. of view!) • 3rd person – An objective point of view; someone outside of the action/story tells the story or does the description. Uses pronouns like “he,” “she,” “it,” “they” and people’s names. This is the pt. of view used in research/expository writing – ALWAYS. May be used for all types of writing.
Types of paragraphs • Descriptive – Uses words and details to paint a picture in the reader’s imagination. • Narrative – uses a sequence of events that tells a story or narrative. Combines description with elements of plot/storytelling • Persuasive – uses logical arguments to persuade the reader to adopt your arguments or opinions/point of view. • Expository – This type of writing EXPLAINS and/or INFORMS….uses facts to explain how something works or is done. Research based writing. Includes literary analysis.
Expository Essay Format (for this year at least) Paragraph #1 = Introduction ends with….a Thesis Statement Paragraphs 2 – 4 = 3 Supporting Paragraphs, each with a controlling topic sentence that relates back to the thesis. Last paragraph (#5) = Concluding Paragraph
EXPOSITORY WRITING • Starts with an introductory paragraph. • Introduction should capture your reader’s interest, give relevant background information, mention title and author (if applicable), and delineate nicely to your thesis • First sentence of the introduction is called a “hook” • Recommended Hooks – • Startling fact/statistic • Question (not my favorite) • Relevant and interesting quote • Anecdote • Background information (boring ) INTRODUCTION ENDS WITH A THESIS STATEMENT!
Thesis Statements • Perhaps the MOST IMPORTANT part of your essay. • For a five paragraph essay it should be ONE SENTENCE. • Will be the last sentence of your introduction. • Must state your three primary arguments/ideas in the order in which they will appear in the essay, and if applicable, state a position.
Thesis Statements (non position) • Ethan Frome illustrates that in the early 1900s, family took care of other family, women had little means of sustenance other than their fathers or husbands, and men had an unspoken obligation to stay loyal to, and thus married to, their wives.
Thesis Statement w/position Ethan Frome’stone and mood establish a depressing and pessimistic view of society’s constraining effects as seen through Mattie, Zeena, and Ethan.
Ethan Frome illustrates that in the early 1900s, family took care of other family, women had little means of sustenance other than their fathers or husbands, and men had an unspoken obligation to stay loyal to, and thus married to, their wives. • Body Paragraph #1 = • Body Paragraph #2 = • Body Paragraph #3 =
Body Paragraphs • Body Paragraphs are the MEAT of your essay. This is where you present your major arguments/points as stated in thesis. • ONE MAIN IDEA/POINT per Paragraph. • Start with a topic sentence. (States your main idea.) • Include enough supporting sentences to masterfully support your thesis. • Close with a concluding sentence that summarizes/wraps up your purpose.
Types of Support for Body • Examples (*****) • Facts • Statistics • Quotes (*****) • Description
Also a necessity in Body Paragraphs….. YOUR ANALYSIS! Your interpretation of your information, your examples, your quotes, the poem or the prose! You connect it all together. Here is where you “strut your stuff” and show what you know.. In a professional, well worded, objective way!
Concluding Paragraph • Wraps up main ideas and reflects back on thesis statement (but does not use the exact same words as the ones you used to introduce your thesis statements!) • HITS YOUR POINT HOME! • ENDS WITH A BANG/END HOOK!
Things to Remember! • Indent each new paragraph. • Avoid using contractions (didn’t, they’ll, etc.) • Avoid “things” and “ a lot” • Avoid slang and colloquial expressions • Never write…”In this essay I will tell you about….” (nor anything similar to that!) • Use third person point of view. Avoid “you” (unless asking a rhetorical question) and “I.” • Use quotes to support your ideas. Be sure to cite them. • Cite summaries and paraphrases too. • Organize your essay!