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A Quantum self-Routing Packet Switching. Manish Kumar Shukla, Rahul Ratan and A. Yavuz Oruc, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park. Abstract.

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a quantum self routing packet switching

A Quantum self-Routing Packet Switching

Manish Kumar Shukla, Rahul Ratan and A. Yavuz Oruc,

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park.

abstract
Abstract
  • Use quantum superposition and entanglement to obtain non-blocking switches with efficient routing schemes and low crosspoint complexity
  • Design a self-routing network using quantum circuits/gates based on Banyan network
outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Preliminary
  • Quantum Switch
  • Quantum Banyan Network
  • Concluding Remarks And Future Work
introduction
Introduction
  • non-blocking: An interconnection network is can route all possible one-to-one input-output mappings
  • Many non-blocking interconnection networks exist but either their crosspoint complexity is high
  • An N×N Banyan network is composed of log(N) stage , each having N/2 switches and is self-routing
slide5
Self-routing: The routing decision for a packet at any stage in the network is made solely on the basis of the output address in the packet’s haeader
  • Banyan network: (N/2)log(N) switches and states
  • As a result , a Banyan network cannot route permutation maps
slide6
Contention occur

1.Classical network: random packet drops

2.Quantum network: Using quantum superposition

preliminary
Preliminary
  • Qubits and Superposition
  • Quantum gates
  • Self-routing interconnection networks
qubits and superposition
Qubits and Superposition
  • A qubits state is a vector in a two dimensional complex Hilbert space
  • A qubit can also exist in a superposition of the ‘0’ and ‘1’ states
  • Qubit: qubit ‘s state can be written as , where and
quantum gates
Quantum Gates
  • The Hadamard gate’s transformation matrix
  • The CCN gate’s operation and figure
self routing interconnection networks
Self-routing interconnection networks
  • A network has self-routing property if a packet can be routed by only knowing its input and output address , and nothing about other packets’ output address
slide11
A packet is routed to the lower output of a switch , at the

stageif the most significant address bit is ‘1’ and to the upper output if the bit is ‘0’

quantum switch
Quantum Switch
  • The switch gate
  • A 2×2 Quantum switch
  • Quantum switch with Dummy input
a switch gate
A switch gate
  • The basic building block of the quantum switch is a quantum gate , which we call a switch gate(Fig)

If n=2

slide15
We use the switch gate to superpose the packets that contend for one output of a 2×2 switch and to route the superposition on the output
  • For example n=1 , if the control qubit of the gate is set in

then the action of the gate is

  • Also , if we observe packet x at one of the outputs then packet y will be observed with certainty at the other
a 2 2 quantum switch
A 2×2 Quantum switch
  • The input packets of a 2×2 switch at the stage are in contention for an output link if the most significant bits of their address are same
  • The purpose of our quantum switch is to remove this blocking in the network so that the two contending packets can be routed in parallel on the same link using quantum superposition
slide18
Even though this design creates a superposition of the contending packets at desired output , a complementary superposition is created on the other output also which is undesirable
  • Even if we go ahead and make a Banyan network using this switch , the outputs of the network might receive packets that are not addressed to them
slide19
Also , it will not be possible to verify whether the received packet was intended for that output or not because the output address bits are removed by the nodes of the network
  • We can overcome the problem of verifying the received packets by keeping a copy of the output address in the data portion of the packet
quantum switch with dummy input
Quantum switch with Dummy input
  • Redesign the switch by introduction a dummy input-output pair
  • The undesirable superposition mentioned in pre-section is dumped on the dummy output
slide21
The switch is show in below

is always fed with dummy packets which are distinguishable from data packet

slide22
To keep the dummy packets distinguishable from data packets , the following scheme is used

(1) The address bits of the data-packets are replicated

(2) The address part of the dummy packets is formed by repeating ‘01’ (P/2)-1 times , where the P is the number of bits in the address part of packets at and

(3) The first bit of the data part is also used for distinguishing between data and dummy packets .

This bit is set to ‘0’ in the dummy packets and to ‘1’ in data packets

slide24
(a) When A1,A2= (00,11) or (00,01) or (01,11) or (01,01) , all the switch gates act in through state , the function of the circuit is (Di is a dummy packet on Ii , i=1,2)
slide25
(b) When A1,A2 = (11,00) or (11,01) or (01,00) ,thus S1 ,S2 and S3 act in through state and S4 is cross state , the function of circuit is
slide26
(c) When A1,A2 = (00,00)
  • The function of circuit is
slide27
(d) When A1,A2 = (11,11)
  • The function of the circuit is
slide28
When contention occurs ,a superposition of the input packets is sent to their intended output and a dummy packet is sent on the other output
quantum banyan network
Quantum Banyan network
  • A 4×4 quantum Banyan network is show in below
slide30
Suppose inputs 0,1,2,3 have packets for outputs 3,2,0,1
  • The packets are represented by the tuple (A,P)

P: data part

A: address part (represent address bits ‘00’ , ‘11’ and ‘01’ by ‘0’ , ‘1’ and ‘d’ )

  • Thus the packets at the four inputs are (11,P3) , (10,P2) (00,P0) and (01,P1)
slide31
The input state A is
  • The state at location B is
  • The output state is
slide32
If we do a measurement at the outputs of the switch , we will observe one of the tuple in the above expression with probability 1/4 each
  • The probability of observing packet Pi , i=0,1,2,3 at output i is 1/2
concluding remarks and future work
Concluding remarks and future work
  • A simple measurement destroys this superposition and gives only one such output sub-permutation , which is equivalent to classical routing through a Banyan network with random packet drops in case of contention
  • Another direction would be to extend our result to more powerful switching structure such as the Benes and Clos networks