FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RADON AND TRITIUM MONITORING. Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. James T. (Tom) Voss, NRRPT, CHP Fellow of the Health Physics Society PO Box 1362 Los Alamos, NM 87544 [email protected] 505-920-1470 WWW.VOSS-ASSOCIATES.COM.
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Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant
Current Nuclear Power Reactors
Current Research and Test Reactors
New Nuclear Power Reactors
Small Transportable Nuclear Reactors
International Thermonuclear Experimental
Resurgence in Uranium Mining
Uranium Fuel Fabrication
Thorium as a Reactor Fuel
Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing
Need for Remote Real-time Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities
Calvert Cliffs, Units 1 and 2
Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2 and 3
Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1
Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2
Turkey Point Nuclear Plant, Units 3 and 4
North Anna, Units 1 and 2, and Surry, Units 1 and 2
Peach Bottom, Units 2 and 3
St. Lucie, Units 1 and 2
Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1
McGuire, Units 1 and 2, and Catawba, Units 1 and 2
H.B. Robinson Nuclear Plant, Unit 2
R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1
V.C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1
Dresden, Units 2 and 3, and Quad Cities, Units 1 & 2
Farley, Units 1 and 2
Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2
D.C. Cook, Units 1 and 2
Millstone, Units 2 and 3
Point Beach, Units 1 and 2
Browns Ferry, Units 1, 2, and 3
Brunswick, Units 1 and 2
Nine Mile Point, Units 1 and 2
James A. FitzPatrick
Wolf Creek, Unit 1
Harris, Unit 1
Vogtle, Units 1 and 2
Three Mile Island, Unit 1
Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2
Susquehanna, Units 1 and 2
59 APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSE RENEWAL HAVE BEEN ACCEPTED
Pilgrim 1, Unit 1
Indian Point, Units 2 and 3
Prairie Island, Units 1 and 2
Kewaunee Power Station
Cooper Nuclear Station
Duane Arnold Energy Center
Palo Verde, Units 1, 2, and 3
Crystal River, Unit 3
Salem, Units 1 and 2
Diablo Canyon, Units 1 and 2
Columbia Generating Station
19 APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSE RENEWAL ARE UNDER REVIEW
Outside Nuclear Reactor Facilities
Radon monitoring is performed to establish environmental background levels of alpha and beta emitters in the ambient air.
Inside Nuclear Reactor Facilities
Simultaneous and separate monitoring of elemental tritium and tritium oxide can be used to identify the presence of leaks in the hydrogen recombiner in the facility. Elemental tritium will only exist for a short period of time before it either combines with an oxygen atom or it replaces a hydrogen atom on a water molecule.
Monitors For The ITER Project
ITER will require a lot of tritium to start. This leads to the need for tritium monitors inside the facility, around its perimeter, and at those locations producing tritium for ITER. Tritium monitors with high working ranges will be needed for ITER in addition to conventional tritium monitors
ITER is scheduled to start producing power in 2018.
Monitors For DOE
DOE is continuing with refurbishing the US nuclear arsenal. The tritium in those devices must be replaced about every 15 years. The gamma radiation from the device drives the need for tritium monitors with active gamma compensation.
Monitors For DOE
DOE produces and maintains a supply of elemental tritium for our weapons program. Since the elemental tritium combines with oxygen readily there is a need to simultaneously monitor for elemental tritium and tritium oxide. The presence of elemental tritium outside its containment indicates that tritium is leaking from its containment.
What is in the future for these power reactors ?
It seem unlikely the NRC will grant operating licenses for these types of nuclear power reactors.
It seems unlikely the final cost for these types of nuclear power reactors could equal that of the new commercial nuclear power reactors.
Radon and Airborne Uranium Monitoring
There is a need for a CAM for Continuously Monitoring for Airborne Alpha and Beta Activity at High Volumetric Sampling Rates.
In-Situ mining leaches the uranium ore from the underground deposit and greatly reduces the volume of above ground waste.
Open Pit Mining
Closing and covering an open pit mine at the end of its useful life could provide the best permanent solution for protecting the public and the environment.
In-Situ mining could also minimize the mine’s affect on the public and the environment.
Uranium Hexafluoride Production
Honeywell International, Inc. Metropolis, IL
Gas Centrifuge Uranium Enrichment
Areva Enrichment Services Idaho Falls, ID
Louisiana Energy Services Eunice, NM
U.S. Enrichment Corporation Piketon, OH
Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment
U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah, KY
U.S. Enrichment Corporation Piketon, OH (cold standby)
Laser Separation Uranium Enrichment
GE-Hitachi Wilmington, NC
Uranium Fuel Fabrication
AREVA NP, Inc. Lynchburg, VA
AREVA NP, Inc. Richland, WA
B&W Nuclear Operations Group Lynchburg, VA
Global Nuclear Fuel-Americas, LLC Wilmington, NC
Nuclear Fuel Services Erwin, TN
(license renewal application submitted)
Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC Columbia, SC
Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication
Shaw AREVA MOX Services , LLC Aiken, SC (in construction/under licensing review)
These Facilities need Radon and Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring.
Due to the presence of gamma radiation from the uranium the radon monitors need active gamma compensation.
The present US political position is to NOT reprocess nuclear fuel.
A small amount of plutonium and uranium are being used to produce MOX (mixed oxide fuel) but the output is small compared to the need.
United States 300,000
South Africa 39,000
Other Countries 100,000
World Total 1,400,000
Thorium reactors have been used for more than 40 years.
Shippingport Atomic Power Station commenced producing electrical power from its thorium-232, uranium-233 powered reactor in 1957 and was decommissioned in 1982.
These nuclear power reactors will have the same radon and tritium monitoring needs as other nuclear power reactors do.
Portable, Stationary, High Sampling Rate, and Energy Compensated Radon Monitors are needed.
Portable, Stationary, Elemental vs. Oxide, and Energy Compensated Tritium in Air Monitors are needed.
Stationary Tritium in Water Monitors are needed.
American Nuclear Society www.ans.org
Health Physics Society www.hps.org
Institute of Nuclear Power Operations
Nuclear Energy Institute www.nei.org
US Department Of Energy www.doe.gov
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission