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FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RADON AND TRITIUM MONITORING. Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. James T. (Tom) Voss, NRRPT, CHP Fellow of the Health Physics Society PO Box 1362 Los Alamos, NM 87544 [email protected] 505-920-1470 WWW.VOSS-ASSOCIATES.COM.

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future directions of radon and tritium monitoring

FUTURE DIRECTIONS OFRADON AND TRITIUM MONITORING

Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

slide2
James T. (Tom) Voss, NRRPT, CHP

Fellow of the Health Physics Society

PO Box 1362

Los Alamos, NM 87544

[email protected]

505-920-1470

WWW.VOSS-ASSOCIATES.COM

what are the current applications for radon and tritium monitoring

What are the Current Applicationsfor Radon and Tritium Monitoring

Current Nuclear Power Reactors

Current Research and Test Reactors

New Nuclear Power Reactors

Small Transportable Nuclear Reactors

what are the current applications for radon and tritium monitoring4

What are the Current Applicationsfor Radon and Tritium Monitoring

International Thermonuclear Experimental

Reactor (ITER)

DOE Operations

Medical

Resurgence in Uranium Mining

what are the current applications for radon and tritium monitoring5

What are the Current Applicationsfor Radon and Tritium Monitoring

Uranium Fuel Fabrication

Thorium as a Reactor Fuel

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

Need for Remote Real-time Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities

slide9
Applications for License Renewal

Calvert Cliffs, Units 1 and 2

Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2 and 3

Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1

Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

Turkey Point Nuclear Plant, Units 3 and 4

North Anna, Units 1 and 2, and Surry, Units 1 and 2

Peach Bottom, Units 2 and 3

St. Lucie, Units 1 and 2

Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1

McGuire, Units 1 and 2, and Catawba, Units 1 and 2

H.B. Robinson Nuclear Plant, Unit 2

slide10
Applications for License Renewal

R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

V.C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1

Dresden, Units 2 and 3, and Quad Cities, Units 1 & 2

Farley, Units 1 and 2

Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2

D.C. Cook, Units 1 and 2

Millstone, Units 2 and 3

Point Beach, Units 1 and 2

Browns Ferry, Units 1, 2, and 3

Brunswick, Units 1 and 2

Nine Mile Point, Units 1 and 2

slide11
Applications for License Renewal

Monticello

Palisades

James A. FitzPatrick

Wolf Creek, Unit 1

Harris, Unit 1

Oyster Creek

Vogtle, Units 1 and 2

Three Mile Island, Unit 1

Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2

Susquehanna, Units 1 and 2

59 APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSE RENEWAL HAVE BEEN ACCEPTED

slide12
Applications Currently Under Review

Pilgrim 1, Unit 1

Vermont Yankee

Indian Point, Units 2 and 3

Prairie Island, Units 1 and 2

Kewaunee Power Station

Cooper Nuclear Station

Duane Arnold Energy Center

slide13
Applications Currently Under Review

Palo Verde, Units 1, 2, and 3

Crystal River, Unit 3

Hope Creek

Salem, Units 1 and 2

Diablo Canyon, Units 1 and 2

Columbia Generating Station

19 APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSE RENEWAL ARE UNDER REVIEW

slide14
Radon and Tritium Monitoring in
  • Nuclear Reactor Facilities
  • Radon monitoring is performed to;
  • alert personnel to the potential for personal contamination due to radon
  • alert personnel to the potential for degradation in the performance of alpha CAMs
  • alert personnel to unacceptably high levels of radon in the facility
slide15
Radon and Tritium Monitoring in
  • Nuclear Reactor Facilities
  • Tritium monitoring is performed to;
  • alert personnel to the potential for inhalation of tritium
  • alert personnel to the potential malfunction of plant liquid process equipment
slide16
Radon and Tritium Monitoring

Outside Nuclear Reactor Facilities

Radon monitoring is performed to establish environmental background levels of alpha and beta emitters in the ambient air.

slide17
Radon and Tritium Monitoring
  • Outside Nuclear Reactor Facilities
  • Tritium monitoring is performed to;
  • establish a baseline level of tritium in the ambient air and water outside the facility boundary
  • alert personnel to the potential malfunction of plant liquid process equipment
slide18
Special Applications for Tritium Monitors

Inside Nuclear Reactor Facilities

Simultaneous and separate monitoring of elemental tritium and tritium oxide can be used to identify the presence of leaks in the hydrogen recombiner in the facility. Elemental tritium will only exist for a short period of time before it either combines with an oxygen atom or it replaces a hydrogen atom on a water molecule.

slide19
Special Applications For Tritium

Monitors For The ITER Project

ITER will require a lot of tritium to start. This leads to the need for tritium monitors inside the facility, around its perimeter, and at those locations producing tritium for ITER. Tritium monitors with high working ranges will be needed for ITER in addition to conventional tritium monitors

ITER is scheduled to start producing power in 2018.

slide20
Special Applications For Tritium

Monitors For DOE

DOE is continuing with refurbishing the US nuclear arsenal. The tritium in those devices must be replaced about every 15 years. The gamma radiation from the device drives the need for tritium monitors with active gamma compensation.

slide21
Special Applications For Tritium

Monitors For DOE

DOE produces and maintains a supply of elemental tritium for our weapons program. Since the elemental tritium combines with oxygen readily there is a need to simultaneously monitor for elemental tritium and tritium oxide. The presence of elemental tritium outside its containment indicates that tritium is leaking from its containment.

small transportable nuclear power reactors23
Small Transportable Nuclear Power Reactors

What is in the future for these power reactors ?

It seem unlikely the NRC will grant operating licenses for these types of nuclear power reactors.

It seems unlikely the final cost for these types of nuclear power reactors could equal that of the new commercial nuclear power reactors.

slide25
Resurgence in Uranium MiningThe EPA estimates there will be 10,000 to 15,000 more uranium miners in the US by 2015.The EPA is considering lowering the allowable radon exposures for uranium miners.
world uranium production
Production from mines (tonnes U)World Uranium Production

Tons of Uranium

2007 2008

Canada 9476 9000

Kazakhstan 6637 8521

Australia 8611 8430

Namibia 2879 4366

Russia 3413 3521

Niger 3153 3032

Uzbekistan 2320 2338

USA 1654 1430

World total 41,282 43,853

united states uranium production
Production from mines (tonnes U)United States Uranium Production

Tons of Uranium

2007 2008

USA 1654 1430

World total 41,282 43,853

US Uranium Current Production is Primarily

From 4 Mines.

90% of US Uranium Mining is In-Situ.

worker public and environmental protection for uranium mining
Worker, Public, and Environmental Protection for Uranium Mining
  • Controlled Ventilation
  • Radon and Airborne Uranium Monitoring
  • Portable and Personal Continuous Air Monitors
  • In-Situ Mining
  • Open Pit Mining
worker protection for uranium mining
Worker Protection for Uranium Mining

Radon and Airborne Uranium Monitoring

  • Routine area radon and uranium monitoring with sophisticated instruments
  • Radon monitoring before opening a new area to workers
  • Personal radon and uranium monitors for workers
public and environmental protection for uranium mining
Public and Environmental Protectionfor Uranium Mining

There is a need for a CAM for Continuously Monitoring for Airborne Alpha and Beta Activity at High Volumetric Sampling Rates.

public and environmental protection for uranium mining33
Public and Environmental Protectionfor Uranium Mining

In-Situ Mining

In-Situ mining leaches the uranium ore from the underground deposit and greatly reduces the volume of above ground waste.

public and environmental protection for uranium mining34
Public and Environmental Protectionfor Uranium Mining

Open Pit Mining

  • Reduces the risk to the workers by providing better ventilation and reduces other risks in underground mining
  • Exposes more rock dust and uranium ore that could increase the spread of those into the environment
  • Australia’s Olympic Dam mine is converting to an open pit operation
public and environmental protection for uranium mining35
Public and Environmental Protectionfor Uranium Mining

Closing and covering an open pit mine at the end of its useful life could provide the best permanent solution for protecting the public and the environment.

In-Situ mining could also minimize the mine’s affect on the public and the environment.

uranium fuel cycle facilities37
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

Uranium Hexafluoride Production

Honeywell International, Inc. Metropolis, IL

uranium fuel cycle facilities38
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

Gas Centrifuge Uranium Enrichment

Areva Enrichment Services Idaho Falls, ID

(under review)

Louisiana Energy Services Eunice, NM

(in construction)

U.S. Enrichment Corporation Piketon, OH

(in construction)

uranium fuel cycle facilities39
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment

U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah, KY

U.S. Enrichment Corporation Piketon, OH (cold standby)

uranium fuel cycle facilities40
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

Laser Separation Uranium Enrichment

GE-Hitachi Wilmington, NC

(under review)

uranium fuel cycle facilities41
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

Uranium Fuel Fabrication

AREVA NP, Inc. Lynchburg, VA

AREVA NP, Inc. Richland, WA

B&W Nuclear Operations Group Lynchburg, VA

Global Nuclear Fuel-Americas, LLC Wilmington, NC

Nuclear Fuel Services Erwin, TN

(license renewal application submitted)

Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC Columbia, SC

uranium fuel cycle facilities42
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication

Shaw AREVA MOX Services , LLC Aiken, SC (in construction/under licensing review)

uranium fuel cycle facilities43
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities
  • Better Ventilation
  • Radiation Monitoring
  • Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring
  • Criticality Monitoring
uranium fuel cycle facilities44
Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities

These Facilities need Radon and Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring.

Due to the presence of gamma radiation from the uranium the radon monitors need active gamma compensation.

nuclear fuel reprocessing
Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing
  • Better Ventilation
  • Radiation Monitoring
  • Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring
  • Criticality Monitoring
nuclear fuel reprocessing46
Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

The present US political position is to NOT reprocess nuclear fuel.

A small amount of plutonium and uranium are being used to produce MOX (mixed oxide fuel) but the output is small compared to the need.

thorium as a nuclear fuel world supplies in tons
Thorium as a Nuclear FuelWorld Supplies in Tons

Australia 340,000

India 300,000

United States 300,000

Norway 180,000

Canada 100,000

South Africa 39,000

Brazil 18,000

Malaysia 4,500

Other Countries 100,000

World Total 1,400,000

benefits of thorium as a nuclear fuel
Benefits of Thorium as a Nuclear Fuel
  • Greater Abundance than Uranium
  • Production of Thorium Fuel Does Not Require
  • Isotopic Separation
  • Use of Thorium Fuel Produces Much Less
  • Long-Lived Transuranics Than Uranium Fuel
thorium fueled nuclear power reactors
Thorium Fueled Nuclear Power Reactors

Thorium reactors have been used for more than 40 years.

Shippingport Atomic Power Station commenced producing electrical power from its thorium-232, uranium-233 powered reactor in 1957 and was decommissioned in 1982.

thorium fueled nuclear power reactors50
Thorium Fueled Nuclear Power Reactors

These nuclear power reactors will have the same radon and tritium monitoring needs as other nuclear power reactors do.

need for remote real time radiological monitoring of nuclear facilities
Need For Remote Real-Time Radiological Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities
  • Notification of an Unplanned Release
  • Identification and Quantification of Unplanned
  • Releases
  • Tracking of Unplanned Releases to the
  • Environment
  • Prediction of the Path of Unplanned Releases
some unplanned releases from nuclear facilities
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities
  • Three Mile Island - 1979
  • Contributing Factors
  • Facility Design
  • Equipment Malfunction
  • Operator Training
some unplanned releases from nuclear facilities56
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities
  • Chernobyl - 1986
  • Contributing Factors
  • Facility Design
  • Equipment Malfunction
  • Operator Training
some unplanned releases from nuclear facilities57
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities
  • Japan, Tokaimura - 1999
  • Contributing Factors
  • Facility Design
  • Operator Training
some unplanned releases from nuclear facilities58
Some Unplanned Releases from Nuclear Facilities
  • Practices to Prevent and/or
  • Mitigate the Consequences
  • Better Facility Designs
  • Better Equipment Designs
  • Better Operator Training
  • Better Radiological Monitoring Inside and
  • Outside the Facilities
summary
Summary

Portable, Stationary, High Sampling Rate, and Energy Compensated Radon Monitors are needed.

Portable, Stationary, Elemental vs. Oxide, and Energy Compensated Tritium in Air Monitors are needed.

Stationary Tritium in Water Monitors are needed.

references
References

American Nuclear Society www.ans.org

Health Physics Society www.hps.org

Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

www.inpo.info

Nuclear Energy Institute www.nei.org

US Department Of Energy www.doe.gov

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

www.nrc.org

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