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http://www.lab-initio.com (nz089.jpg). Today’s agenda: Announcements. Electric field lines. You must be able to draw electric field lines, and interpret diagrams that show electric field lines. A dipole in an external electric field.

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slide2

Today’s agenda:

Announcements.

Electric field lines.

You must be able to draw electric field lines, and interpret diagrams that show electric field lines.

A dipole in an external electric field.

You must be able to calculate the moment of an electric dipole, the torque on a dipole in an external electric field, and the energy of a dipole in an external electric field.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss’ Law.

You must be able to use Gauss’ Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry charge distribution.

slide3

Special Announcement!

Today’s lecture is brought to you by

The Bavarian College of Mad Science.

And now, a word from our sponsor…

slide5

Announcements

 Remember to check the Physics 24 web page for useful information, handouts, and changes to syllabus.

 E-mail me by the end of Friday of this week if you have a time conflict for Exam 1 (5:00-6:15 pm, Tuesday, February 18). Include the details of your circumstance. (That doesn’t mean I accept responsibility for fixing the conflict.)

 Spring Career Fair is Feb. 18. Contact your recitation instructor (in advance!) if you have an interview or other Career Fair activity that conflicts with your recitation time.

slide6

Announcements

Tomorrow’s homework

1: 59, 62 (Figure E62 is for problem 61);

2: 2, 16, Special Homework #2 (reminder: all solutions must begin with starting equations)

Note that there are problems from both chapters 1 and 2.

You can find Special Homework #2 on the web here.

You can help yourself immensely by being able to say in words what each starting equation means.

slide7

Announcements

 If you need help with Physics 24:

Go to the PLC.

Go to the tutors, available at various times afternoon and evening (check here for updated schedule of tutors).

See your recitation instructor (he/she will tell you to start by doing the above).

Try the counseling center! They can help with test anxiety. Contact counsel@mst.edu.

Labs have started this week.

If you have lab this week, don’t miss it!

3L01 is “odd” 3L02 is “even”

slide8

Today’s agenda:

Announcements.

Electric field lines.

You must be able to draw electric field lines, and interpret diagrams that show electric field lines.

A dipole in an external electric field.

You must be able to calculate the moment of an electric dipole, the torque on a dipole in an external electric field, and the energy of a dipole in an external electric field.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss’ Law.

You must be able to use Gauss’ Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry charge distribution.

slide9

Electric Field Lines

Electric field lines help us visualize the electric field and predict how charged particles would respond to the field.

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/charges-and-fields/charges-and-fields_en.html

slide10

Electric Field Lines

Example: electric field lines for isolated +2e and -e charges.

slide11

Here’s how electric field lines are related to the field:

 The electric field vector E is tangent to the field lines.

 The number of lines per unit area through a surface perpendicular to the lines is proportional to the electric field strength in that region

 The field lines begin on positive charges and end on negative charges.

 The number of lines leaving a positive charge or approaching a negative charge is proportional to the magnitude of the charge.

 No two field lines can cross.

slide12

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~phys1/java/phys1/EField/EField.htmlhttp://www.its.caltech.edu/~phys1/java/phys1/EField/EField.html

This applet has issues with calculating the correct number of field lines, but the “idea” is OK.

Example: draw the electric field lines for charges +2e and -1e, separated by a fixed distance. View from “near” the charges.

slide13

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~phys1/java/phys1/EField/EField.htmlhttp://www.its.caltech.edu/~phys1/java/phys1/EField/EField.html

This applet has issues with calculating the correct number of field lines, but the “idea” is OK.

Example: draw the electric field lines for charges +2e and -1e, separated by a fixed distance. This time you are looking from “far away.”

slide14

Applets illustrating motion of charged particle in electric field:

http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/physical/giambattista/electric/electric_fields.html

http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~walkup/demonstrations/WebAssignments/ChargedParticles001.htm

http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/charges-and-fields/charges-and-fields_en.html

slide15

Today’s agenda:

Announcements.

Electric field lines.

You must be able to draw electric field lines, and interpret diagrams that show electric field lines.

A dipole in an external electric field.

You must be able to calculate the moment of an electric dipole, the torque on a dipole in an external electric field, and the energy of a dipole in an external electric field.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss’ Law.

You must be able to use Gauss’ Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry charge distribution.

slide16

Electric Dipole in an

External Electric Field

An electric dipole consists of two charges +q and -q, equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, separated by a fixed distance d. q is the “charge on the dipole.”

Earlier, I calculated the electric field along the perpendicular bisector of a dipole (this equation gives the magnitude only).

Caution! This is not the general expression for the electric field of a dipole!

The electric field depends on the product qd. This is true in general.

slide17

q and d are parameters that characterize the dipole; we define the "dipole moment" of a dipole to be the vector

caution: this p is not momentum!

where the direction of p is from negative to positive (NOT away from +).

+q

-q

p

To help you remember the direction of p, this is on the equation sheet:

slide18

A dipole in a uniform electric field experiences no net force, but probably experiences a torque.

Noooooooo! No torques!

slide19

There are worse things on this earth than torques…

from http://www.nearingzero.net (nz262.jpg)

slide20

A dipole in a uniform electric field experiences no net force, but probably experiences a torque…

F+

+q

p

E

-q

F-

There is no net force on the dipole:

slide21

E

F+

+q

p

½ d sin

½ d sin

-q

F-

If we choose the midpoint of the dipole as the origin for calculating the torque, we find

and in this case the direction is into the plane of the figure. Expressed as a vector,

Recall that the unit of torque is N·m, which is not a joule!

slide22

E

F+

+q

p

½ d sin

½ d sin

-q

F-

The torque’s magnitude is pEsin and the direction is given by the right-hand rule.

What is the maximum torque magnitude? For what angle  is the torque a maximum?

slide23

*Calculated using , which you learned in Physics 23.

Energy of an Electric Dipole in an

External Electric Field

E

F+

+q

p

-q

F-

If the dipole is free to rotate, the electric field does work* to rotate the dipole.

The work depends only on the initial and final coordinates, and not on how you go from the initial to the final coordinates.

slide24

Does that awaken vague memories of Physics 23?

If a force is conservative, you can define a potential energy associated with it.

What kinds of potential energies did you learn about in Physics 23?

Because the electric force is conservative, we can define a potential energy for a dipole. The equation for work

suggests we should define

slide25

E

F+

+q

p

-q

F-

With this definition, U is zero when =/2.

U is maximum when cos=-1, or = (a point of unstable equilibrium).

U is minimum when cos=+1, or =0 (stable equilibrium).

It is “better” to express the dipole potential energy as

Recall that the unit of energy is the joule, which is a N·m, but is not the same as the N·m of torque!

slide26

Summary:

Units are N·m, but not joules!

Units are N·m = joules!

p

+q

E

-q

The information on this slide is enough to work homework problems involving torque.

slide28

Today’s agenda:

Announcements.

Electric field lines.

You must be able to draw electric field lines, and interpret diagrams that show electric field lines.

A dipole in an external electric field.

You must be able to calculate the moment of an electric dipole, the torque on a dipole in an external electric field, and the energy of a dipole in an external electric field.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss’ Law.

You must be able to use Gauss’ Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry charge distribution.

slide29

E

Electric Flux

We have used electric field lines to visualize electric fields and indicate their strength.

We are now going to count* the number of electric field lines passing through a surface, and use this count to determine the electric field.

*There are 3 kinds of people in this world: those who can count, and those who can’t.

slide30

A

E

E

The electric flux passing through a surface is the number of electric field lines that pass through it.

Because electric field lines are drawn arbitrarily, we quantify electric flux like this: E=EA, except that…

If the surface is tilted, fewer lines cut the surface.

Later we’ll learn about magnetic flux, which is why I will use the subscript E on electric flux.

The green lines miss!

slide31

We define A to be a vector having a magnitude equal to the area of the surface, in a direction normal to the surface.

A

E

The “amount of surface” perpendicular to the electric field is Acos.

Therefore, the amount of surface area effectively “cut through” by the electric field is Acos.

AEffective = A cos  so E = EAEffective = EA cos.

Remember the dot product from Physics 23?

slide32

If the electric field is not uniform, or the surface is not flat…

divide the surface into infinitesimal surface elements and add the flux through each…

E

A

dA

Remember, the direction of dA is normal to the surface.

slide33

a surface integral, therefore a double integral

If the surface is closed (completely encloses a volume)…

…we count* lines going out as positive and lines going in as negative…

E

dA

For a closed surface, dA is normal to the surface and always points away from the inside.

*There are 10 kinds of people in this world: those who can count in binary, and those who can’t.

slide34

What the *!@* is this thing?

Nothing to panic about!

The circle just reminds you to integrate over a closed surface.

slide35

Question: you gave me five different equations for electric flux. Which one do I need to use?

Answer: use the simplest (easiest!) one that works.

Flat surface, E  A, E constant over surface. Easy!

Flat surface, E not  A, E constant over surface.

Flat surface, E not  A, E constant over surface.

Surface not flat, E not uniform. Avoid, if possible.

Closed surface. Most general. Most complex.

If the surface is closed, you may be able to “break it up” into simple segments and still use E=E·A for each segment.

slide36

Example: Calculate the electric flux through a cylinder with its axis parallel to the electric field direction.

E

To be worked at the blackboard…

slide37

Possible Homework Hint! (not applicable every semester)

If you know E and A for each surface enclosing a volume, the simplest way to calculate the total Emight be to calculate

for each surface, and add up all the E’s.

slide38

+

-

E

If there were a + charge inside the cylinder, there would be more lines going out than in.

If there were a - charge inside the cylinder, there would be more lines going in than out…

…which leads us to…

slide39

Today’s agenda:

Announcements.

Electric field lines.

You must be able to draw electric field lines, and interpret diagrams that show electric field lines.

A dipole in an external electric field.

You must be able to calculate the moment of an electric dipole, the torque on a dipole in an external electric field, and the energy of a dipole in an external electric field.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss’ Law.

You must be able to use Gauss’ Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry charge distribution.

slide40

Gauss’ Law

Mathematically*, we express the idea of the last two slides as

Gauss’ Law

Always true, not always useful.

We will find that Gauss’ law gives a simple way to calculate electric fields for charge distributions that exhibit a high degree of symmetry…

…and we will save more complex charge distributions for advanced classes.

*“Mathematics is the Queen of the Sciences.”—Karl Gauss

slide41

To see how this works, let’s do an example.

Example: use Gauss’ Law to calculate the electric field from an isolated point charge q.

To apply Gauss’ Law, we construct a “Gaussian Surface” enclosing the charge.

The Gaussian surface must have the a symmetry appropriate for the charge distribution.

For this example, choose for our Gaussian surface a sphere of radius r, with the point charge at the center.

I’ll work the rest of the example on the blackboard.

slide42

Homework Hint!

For tomorrow’s homework, you may not apply the equation for the electric field of a point charge

to a distribution of charges. Instead, use Gauss’ Law. Later I may give you permission to use the point charge equation for certain specific charge distributions.

You may recall that I said you could use for spherically-symmetric charge distributions.

But I never said you could use

slide43

 Solve for E.

Strategy for Solving Gauss’ Law Problems

  •  Select a Gaussian surface with symmetry that “matches” the charge distribution.
    • Use symmetry to determine the direction of on the Gaussian surface.
    • You want to be constant in magnitude and everywhere perpendicular to the surface, so that …
    • … or else everywhere parallel to the surface so that .

 Evaluate the surface integral (electric flux).

 Determine the charge inside the Gaussian surface.

slide44

Example: calculate the electric field outside a long cylinder of finite radius R with a uniform volume charge density  spread throughout the volume of the cylinder.

The cylinder being “long” and the radius “finite” are “code words” that tell you to neglect end effects from the cylinder (i.e., assume it is infinitely long).

Know how to interpret “code words” when exam time comes!

Let’s go through this a step at a time (work to be shown at board; skip to here).

 Select a Gaussian surface with symmetry that “matches” the charge distribution.

Pick a cylinder of length L and radius r, concentric with the cylinder of the problem.

slide45

 Use symmetry to determine the direction of E on the Gaussian surface.

 Draw the Gaussian surface so that at all points on the Gaussian surface either or .

Already done!

Electric field points radially away from cylinder, and magnitude does not depend on direction.

 Evaluate the surface integral (electric flux).

Surface integral is just E times the curved area.

slide46

 Solve for E.

Determine the charge inside the Gaussian surface.

The charge inside is just the volume of charged cylinder inside the Gaussian surface, times the charge per volume.

More details of the calculation shown here:

http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/Handouts/charged_cylinder.pdf

slide47

Homework Hint (may not apply every semester)

is the definition of electric flux through a

surface.

If appropriate, you should use or one of the other simpler versions. I won’t make that an OSE because it is not always valid.

slide48

Demo: Professor Tries to Avoid

Debilitating Electrical Shock While

Demonstrating Van de Graaff Generator

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_de_Graaff_generator