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  1. BRS 214Introduction to PsychologyWeek 2/3 Dawn Stewart BSC, MPA, PHD

  2. PSYCHOLOGYHistory 387 BC- Plato suggested that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes. 335 BC- Aristotle suggested that the heart is the mechanism of mental processes. 1774 AD- Franz Mesmer detailed his cure for some mental illness, originally called mesmerism and now known as hypnosis. 1793-Philippe Pinel released the first mental patients from confinement in the first massive movement for more humane treatment of the mentally ill. 1808- Franz Gall wrote about phrenology (the idea that a person's skull shape and placement of bumps on the head can reveal personality traits.

  3. PSYCHOLOGYHistory 1834-Ernst Heinrich Weber published his perception theory of 'Just Noticeable Difference,' now known as Weber law. 1848-Phineas Gage suffered brain damage when an iron pole pierces his brain.  His personality was changed but his intellect remained intact suggesting that an area of the brain plays a role in personality. 1859-Charles Darwin published the On the Origin of Species, detailing his view of evolution and expanding on the theory of 'Survival of the fittest.' 1861-French physician Paul Broca discovered an area in the left frontal lobe that plays a key role in language development. 1869- Sir Francis Galton Influenced by Charles Darwin's 'Origin of the Species,' publishes 'Hereditary Genius,' and argues that intellectual abilities are biological in nature.

  4. PSYCHOLOGYHistory 1879-Wilhelm Wundt founded the first formal laboratory of Psychology at the University of Leipzig, marking the formal beginning of the study of human emotions, behaviors, and cognitions.. 1886-Sigmund Freud began performing therapy in Vienna, marking the beginning of personality theory. 1890-William James published 'Principles of Psychology,' that later became the foundation for functionalism.

  5. PSYCHOLOGYHistory 1900-Sigmund Freud published 'Interpretation of Dreams' marking the beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought.. 1906- Ivan Pavlov published the first studies on Classical Conditioning. 1913- Carl G. Jung departed from Freudian views and developed his own theories citing Freud's inability to acknowledge religion and spirituality.  His new school of thought became known as Analytical Psychology.

  6. PSYCHOLOGYHistory 1952- A study on psychotherapy efficacy was published by Hans Eysenck suggesting that therapy is no more effective that no treatment at all.  This prompted an onslaught of outcome studies which have since shown psychotherapy to be an effective treatment for mental illness. 1952-The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published by the American Psychiatric Association marking the beginning of modern mental illness classification. 1952- Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) first used in the treatment of schizophrenia. 1953- B.F. Skinner outlined behavioral therapy, lending support for behavioral psychology via research in the literature. 1954- Abraham Maslow helped to found Humanistic Psychology and later developed his famous Hierarchy of Needs. 1957- Leon Festinger proposed his theory of 'Cognitive Dissonance' and later became an influence figure in Social Psychology.

  7. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Wilhelm Wundt is thought of as one of the founding fathers, if not the founding father of psychology. Wundt did not discover psychology, as that distinction does not go to one person but belongs to the individual efforts of many. What Wundt is credited with doing is founding psychology, or in other words he made psychology a true science. Wilhelm Wundt and William James are usually thought of as the fathers of psychology, as well as the founders of psychology’s first two great “schools.”  Although they were very different men, there are some parallels:  Wilhelm Wundt born in 1832 and dying in 1920, while William James was born ten years later and died ten years earlier.  Both have claims to having established the first psychology lab in 1875.  And neither named his school. Sigmund Freud, physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and father of psychoanalysis, is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century.

  8. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Two American psychologists, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers paved the way for this new approach to understanding personality and improving the overall satisfaction of individuals.

  9. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Maslow's most well known contribution is the Hierarchy of Needs and this is often used to summarize the belief system of humanistic psychology.  The basic premise behind this hierarchy is that we are born with certain needs.  Without meeting these initial needs, we will not be able to continue our life and move upward on hierarchy.  This first level consists of our physiological needs, or our basic needs for survival.  Without food, water, sleep, and oxygen, nothing else in life matters.

  10. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Once these needs are met, we can move to the next level, which consists of our need for safety and security.  At this level we look seek out safety through other people and strive to find a world that will protect us and keep us free from harm.  Without these goals being met, it is extremely difficult to think about higher level needs and therefore we can not continue to grow.

  11. PSYCHOLOGYHistory When we feel safe and secure in our world then we begin to seek out friendships in order to feel a sense of belonging.  Maslow's third level, the need for belonging and love, focuses on our desire to be accepted, to fit in, and to feel like we have a place in the world.  Getting these needs met propels us closer to the top of this pyramid and into the fourth level, called esteem needs.  At this level we focus our energy on self-respect, respect from others, and feeling that we have made accomplishments on our life.  We strive to move upward in careers, to gain knowledge about the world, and to work toward a sense of high self-worth.

  12. PSYCHOLOGYHistory The final level in the hierarchy is called the need for self-actualization.  According to Maslow, may people may be in this level but very few if anybody ever masters it.  Self-actualization refers to a complete understanding of the self.  To be self-actualized means to truly know who you are, where you belong in the greater society, and to feel like you have accomplished all that you have set out to accomplish.  It means to no longer feel shame or guilt, or even hate, but to accept the world and see human nature as inherently good.

  13. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Carl Rogers was more of a therapist.   His professional goal was more on helping people change and improve their lives.  He was a true follower of humanistic ideation and is often considered the person who gave psychotherapy it's basic humanistic undertones. Rogers believed in several key concepts that he believed must be present in order for healthy change to take place.  His approach to treatment is called Client or Person-Centered-Therapy because it sees the individual, rather than the therapist or the treatment process as the center of effective change. 

  14. PSYCHOLOGYHistory These basic concepts include: • Unconditional Positive Regard: The therapist must believe that people are basically good and must demonstrate this belief to the client. Without unconditional positive regard, the client will not disclose certain information, could feel unworthy, and may hold onto negative aspects of the self.  Accepting the client as innately worthwhile does not mean accepting all actions the client may exhibit. • Non-Judgmental Attitude:  Along with seeing the person as worthy, the therapist should never pass judgment on the individual.  Roger's believed that people are competent in seeing their mistakes and knowing what needs to change even if they may not initially admit it.  He also believed that by judging a person, you are more likely to prevent disclosure.

  15. PSYCHOLOGYHistory These basic concepts include: • Disclosure:  Disclosure refers to the sharing of personal information.  Unlike Psychoanalysis and many other approaches to therapy, Roger's believed that in order for the client to disclose, the therapist must do the same.  Research has shown that we share information at about the same level as the other person. • Reflection: Rogers believed that the key to understanding the self was not interpretation, but rather reflection.  By reflecting a person's words in a different manner, you can accomplish two things.  • 1. Shows the client that you are paying attention, thinking about what he or she is saying, and also understanding the underlying thoughts and feelings.  • 2. Allows the client to hear their own thoughts in a different way.  Many people have said that their beliefs become more real once they are presented back to them by someone else.

  16. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Sigmund Freud was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1856.  His family moved to Vienna when he was four, where he spent the majority of his life.  Although his family was Jewish, Freud considered himself an atheist.  In 1900, Freud published the book that started the whole Psychoanalytical rage that still exists today.  His book The Interpretation of Dreams began the complex theory of Psychoanalytic thought with the introduction of the 'unconscious mind.  A year later he published The Psychopathology of Everyday Life where the belief that there were no accidents in life was first introduced.  The term 'Freudian Slip' (as it is known now) referring to an unconscious slip of the tongue was discussed in this book.

  17. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Psychoanalysis focuses on the unconscious aspects of personality. According to Freud the human mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden in the unconscious. He believed that the conscious level of the mind was similar to the tip of the iceberg which could be seen, but the unconscious was mysterious and was hidden. The unconscious also consists of aspects of personality of which a person is unaware. The conscious on the other hand is that which is within our awareness.

  18. PSYCHOLOGYHistory The preconscious consists of that which is not in immediate awareness but is easily accessible. In 1923 Freud described his constructs of the id, ego and the superego. The id is the most primitive part of our personality. It operates according to the pleasure principle and it simply seeks immediate gratification. Freud believed that every human had a life and death instinct. The life instinct is called eros while the death instinct is called thanatos. Both are integral parts of the id. And the energy for this mechanism is libido, a flowing, dynamic force.

  19. PSYCHOLOGYHistory In 1923 Freud described his constructs of the id, ego and the superego. The id is the most primitive part of our personality. It operates according to the pleasure principle and it simply seeks immediate gratification. Freud believed that every human had a life and death instinct. The life instinct is called eros while the death instinct is called thanatos. Both are integral parts of the id. The energy for this mechanism is libido, a flowing, dynamic force.

  20. PSYCHOLOGYHistory The ego is different from the id as it is extremely objective. It operates according to the "reality principle" and deals with the demands of the environment. It regulates the flow of libido and keeps the id in check, thus acting as a "control center" of the personality. It is the superego which represents the values and standards of an individual's personality. It acts as an internal judge, it punishes the ego with feelings of guilt or it rewards, which lead to feelings of pride and heightened self esteem. The superego is a characteristic of the personality which strives for perfection. According to Freud, the disparity and development of the id, ego and the superego, determines an individuals behavior in a given situation, which in turn results in the development of the personality.

  21. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Freud placed great importance on the early years of a child as he believed that what we are as adults is determined by childhood experiences. Freud called these early years of development the psychosexual years of development. These early years proceed through a number of stages. Each child undergoes the different stages. Oral stage (first year of life) Anal stage ( second year) Phallic stage (third through fifth year) Period of latency (from 6 to 12) The genital stage (after puberty). Freud believed that as every child passes through these stages there might be a likely possibility that a child may spend more time in a particular stage then they aught to. This condition can lead to a fixation or an incomplete development of the personality.

  22. PSYCHOLOGYHistory A critical event during the first five years of life is the experience of Oedipus and Electra conflicts. Freud believed that both sexes encounter and must deal with these turmoils, which result from boys developing sexual attraction toward their mothers, and girls developing sexual attraction towards their fathers. A boy may have feelings of jealousy towards his father as he is an obstacle between him and his mother. And, they fear retaliation by their fathers if they are caught (fear of castration). Since the boy loves his father, these feelings are repressed and he begins to identify with the father, adopting his values. Similarly girls develop hostility towards their mothers, unconsciously blaming their mothers for not being equal with boys. They assume that something is missing and feels inadequate (penis envy)

  23. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Another major aspect of psychoanalysis is the development of defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are used by the ego to protect the person from anxiety. Repression is when information is pushed down into the unconscious. This information is either unpleasant or undesirable and may cause anxiety. Very often this information is pushed so deep down into the unconscious that is hard to retrieve. Reaction formation is when due to anxiety feelings are replaced by the extreme opposite. For instance a person feeling hate will be replaced by love. Undoing is when the ego completely changes actions which lead to feelings of anxiety. In this mechanism the truth may be drastically distorted.

  24. PSYCHOLOGYHistory Projection is when an individual tends to assign one's own shortcomings on to someone else. Rationalization is when an irrational act is made to appear rational. Denial occurs in cases where the ego is threatened and a person refuses to acknowledge the reality or seriousness of the situation. Identification involves empathizing with the qualities or characteristics of another favorable person. Fixation and Regression are related mechanisms which occur during psychosexual development.

  25. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Adler's theory, each of us is born into the world with a sense of inferiority.  We start as a weak and helpless child and strive to overcome these deficiencies by become superior to those around us.  This is called struggle a striving for superiority, and like Freud's Eros and Thanatos, he saw this as the driving force behind all human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

  26. PSYCHOLOGYTheory For those of us who strive to be accomplished writers, powerful business people, or influential politicians, it is because of our feelings of inferiority and a strong need to over come this negative part of us according to Adler.  This excessive feeling of inferiority can also have the opposite effect.  As it becomes overwhelming and without the needed successes, we can develop an inferiority complex.  This belief leaves us with feeling incredibly less important and deserving than others, helpless, hopeless, and unmotivated to strive for the superiority that would make us complete.

  27. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Adler did agree with Freud on some major issues relating to the parenting of children and the long term effects of improper or inefficient child rearing.  He identified two parental styles that he argued will cause almost certain problems in adulthood.  First was pampering, referring to a parent overprotecting a child, giving him too much attention, and sheltering him from the negative realities of life.  As this child grows older, he will be ill equipped to deal with these realities, may doubt his own abilities or decision making skills, and may seek out others to replace the safety he once enjoyed as a child.

  28. PSYCHOLOGYTheory On the other extreme is what Adler called neglect.  A neglected child is one who is not protected at all from the world and is forced to face life's struggles alone.  This child may grow up to fear the world, have a strong sense of mistrust for others and she may have a difficult time forming intimate relationships. The best approach, according to this theory, is to protect children form the evils of the world but not shelter them from it.  In more practical terms, it means allowing them to hear or see the negative aspects of the world while still feeling the safety of parental influence.  In other words, don't immediately go to the school principal if your child is getting bullied, but rather teach your child how to respond or take care of herself at school.

  29. PSYCHOLOGYTheory On the other extreme is what Adler called neglect.  A neglected child is one who is not protected at all from the world and is forced to face life's struggles alone.  This child may grow up to fear the world, have a strong sense of mistrust for others and she may have a difficult time forming intimate relationships. The best approach, according to this theory, is to protect children form the evils of the world but not shelter them from it.  In more practical terms, it means allowing them to hear or see the negative aspects of the world while still feeling the safety of parental influence.  In other words, don't immediately go to the school principal if your child is getting bullied, but rather teach your child how to respond or take care of herself at school.

  30. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Adler believed that the order in which you are born to a family inherently effects your personality.  First born children who later have younger siblings may have it the worst.  These children are given excessive attention and pampering by their parents until that fateful day when the little brother or sister arrives.  Suddenly they are no longer the center of attention and fall into the shadows wondering why everything changed.  They are left feeling inferior, questioning their importance in the family, and trying desperately to gain back the attention they suddenly lost.  The birth order theory holds that first born children often have the greatest number of problems as they get older .

  31. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Middle born children may have it the easiest. Interestingly, Adler was a middle born child.  Middle born children are not pampered as their older sibling was, but are still afforded the attention.  As a middle child, they have the luxury of trying to dethrone the oldest child and become more superior while at the same time knowing that they hold this same power over their younger siblings.  Adler believed that middle children have a high need for superiority and are often able to seek it out such as through healthy competition.

  32. PSYCHOLOGYTheory The youngest children, like the first born, may be more likely to experience personality problems later in life.  This is the child who grows up knowing that he has the least amount of power in the whole family.  He or she sees their older siblings having more freedom and more superiority.  He or she also gets pampered and protected more than any other child did.  This could leave him or her with a sense that he can not take on the world alone and will always be inferior to others.

  33. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Erikson saw himself as an artist and spent his youth wandering through Europe living the artist's life.  In 1927, he took a job working with children of Freud's patients and friends.  The school approached development psychoanalytically and Erikson was soon to master this theory and begin developing his own theories relating to personality development.  His two major contributions to psychodynamic thought include a reappraisal of the ego and an extended view of developmental stages.

  34. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Erik Erikson believed that the ego Freud described was far more than just a mediator between the superego and the id.  Erikson saw the ego as a positive driving force in human development and personality.  Erikson believed the ego's main job was to establish and maintain a sense of identity.  A person with a strong sense of identity is one who knows where he is in life, has accepted this positions and has workable goals for change and growth.  He has a sense of uniqueness while also having a sense of belonging and wholeness.

  35. PSYCHOLOGYTheory Those who have weaker egos, encounter trying times, or who have poorly developed egos get trapped in what is termed an identity crisis.  Erikson, an identity crisis is a time in a person's life when they lack direction, feel unproductive, and  do not feel a strong sense of identity.  He believed that we all have identity crises at one time or another in our lives and that these crises do not necessarily represent a negative but can be a driving force toward positive resolution. 

  36. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order. Instead of focusing on sexual development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self.  He saw personality as developing throughout the lifetime and looked at identity crises at the focal point for each stage of human development.

  37. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interactions with others. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time.

  38. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interactions with others. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time.

  39. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Trust Versus Mistrust. From ages birth to one year, children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s). If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore an sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world. If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.

  40. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Initiative vs. Guilt. Around age three and continuing to age six, children assert themselves more frequently. They begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain followers, lacking in self-initiative. • Industry vs. Inferiority. From age six years to puberty, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. They initiate projects, see them through to completion, and feel good about what they have achieved. During this time, teachers play an increased role in the child’s development. If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore may not reach his potential.

  41. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Identity vs. Role Confusion. During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. This sense of who they are can be hindered, which results in a sense of confusion ("I don’t know what I want to be when I grow up") about themselves and their role in the world. • Intimacy vs. Isolation. Occurring in Young adulthood, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful completion can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression.

  42. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development • Generativity vs. Stagnation. During middle adulthood, we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. • Ego Integrity vs. Despair. As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. If we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our pasts, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.

  43. PSYCHOLOGYErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

  44. PSYCHOLOGYTheory The basic ideas behind humanistic psychology are simple, some may say overly simple.  Humanists hold the following beliefs: • The present is the most important aspect of the person and therefore humanists focus on the here and now rather than looking at the past or trying to predict the future. • Humanistic theory is reality based and to be psychologically healthy people must take responsibility for themselves, whether the person's actions are positive or negative. • The individual, merely by being human, posses an inherent worth.  Actions may not be positive but this does not negate the value of the person. • The goal of life should always be to achieve personal growth and understanding.  Only through self-improvement and self-knowledge can one truly be happy.