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  1. Test Review Pick up a study guide

  2. 1. How do the microorganisms like bacteria and fungi help sustain the overall health of their ecosystems? • They help keep nutrients cycling in the ecosystem

  3. 2. The graph shows changes in a community after a disturbance has occurred. Based upon the information in the graph, what were the changes in the community caused by? • Succession caused by a fire or natural disaster

  4. 3. Which classification taxa show the closest degree of relationship? • Species

  5. 4. What would cause an excess output in the carbon cycle? • The destruction of terrestrial life

  6. 5. What do the projections on the surface of a virus allow it to do? • Help the virus to attach to the host

  7. 6. What is the benefit of having a standard taxonomic system? • There is a common naming system for organisms and understanding

  8. 7. In what phylum should the following organism be classified? • platyhelminthes

  9. 8. When will a non-native species survive over a native species in the same ecosystem? • When the non-native species has no natural predators

  10. 9. If a gene in an organism allows it to survive and reproduce, as well as that’s organism’s offspring, then the frequency of the gene should increase at what level? • The frequency of the gene in a population

  11. 10. What would be the correct order for ecological succession for this environment? • II,IV, I, III

  12. 11. Why is overfishing leading to an increase in algae overgrowth in coral reefs? • There are less animals to eat the algae

  13. 12. If a pea plant with the genotype TtYy is crossed with a pea plant with genotype ttyy, what percentage of the offspring will be expected to have the genotype ttYy? • 25%

  14. 13. What does the arrow on the DNA molecule indicate? • Nitrogen base

  15. 14. What stage of mitosis is the cell indicated undergoing? • Metaphase

  16. 15. According to the codon chart, what amino acid would be produced from the DNA triplet 3’ TCT 5’?

  17. 16. A technique called chromosome painting allows scientists to mark the locations of genes on chromosomes using fluorescent tags. This technique can be used on different species of organisms. What does chromosome painting allow for? • To look at the genomes of different species

  18. 17. How does the shape of an enzyme determine its function? • Enzymes react with specific substrates

  19. 18. Give a statement that best describes how cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria. • The energy in the bonds of glucose are transferred to make ATP

  20. 19. What type of molecule is being produced in this diagram? • mRNA

  21. 20. What is the primary difference between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? • Photosynthesis is the exact opposite of cellular respiration.

  22. 21. What is missing from the following food web? • producers

  23. 22. The concept of gene flow, where new individuals contribute their genes to populations, causes an increase in what? • Genetic diversity

  24. 23. What are the monomers of proteins, and what bonds hold them together? • Amino acids • Peptide bonds

  25. 24. Algae like Euglena and cyanobacteria both undergo photosynthesis. What is the primary difference between the two organisms? • The presence of a nuclear membrane

  26. 25. What symbiotic relationship occurs when both partners benefit from the interaction? Mutualism

  27. 26. What does crossing over lead to an increase of? Genetic Variation

  28. 27. Horses are much larger now than their ancestors in the fossil record. What would be the best explanation for why horses have changed so much over millions of years? Scorpions have changed as a result of natural selection

  29. 28. The Nile River flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The Aswan High Dam contains the flow of water from the river and reduces the annual fall flooding. The floodwater is trapped behind the huge dam, allowing irrigation for agriculture. Sediments that would be washed away by the annual floods are also trapped behind the dam. The graph shows the water flow from the Nile that enters the Mediterranean Sea. How has the dam most likely affected the Mediterranean Sea Ecosystem? Reduced nutrients from the land support fewer producers in the sea

  30. 29. What process takes place in ribosomes found on rough Endoplasmic reticulum? The synthesis of new proteins

  31. 30. What part of the DNA molecule is responsible for the expression of traits? Nitrogenous bases

  32. 31. Zoogeographic regions are characterized by the presence of specific groups of animals. These regions are determined by the taxonomic or phylogenetic relationships of animals. The map shows the zoogeographic regions proposed by the naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace in 1876.Which two numbered areas are likely to contain organisms that share common ancestors based upon geographic proximity? Organism 1 and 2

  33. 32. What level of biological organization is being expressed in the following chart? Community

  34. 33. What would be the genotype ratio for a cross between two dogs that are heterozygous for color? • 1 BB: 2 Bb: 1 bb

  35. 34. What is the purpose of mimicry for organisms that copy the color pattern of similar organisms that are poisonous? • protect the scarlet king snake from predators

  36. 35. What occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle? • The DNA must be replicated

  37. 36. How does DNA determine an organism’s traits? DNA contains codes for proteins, which are necessary for the growth and functioning of an organism

  38. 37. What biochemical controls cell differentiation? DNA

  39. 38. The limbs of several vertebrates are below. They are considered to be homologous structures inherited from a common ancestor for what reason? Have the same basic structure

  40. 39. Mutations that occur in the gametes of an organism will show up where? • The siblings of the organism

  41. 40. The Texas blind salamander (Eurycearathbuni) lives in the Edwards Aquifer region around San Marcos. Along with other species the salamander lives in total darkness in the underground crevices and caves of the aquifer region. The table lists some of the organisms that live in this environment and their food sources. What organism in this community would be placed at the bottom of the energy pyramid? • Protozoa

  42. 41. What types of cells never enter G0 and continuously repeat the cell cycle? • Repeat the cell cycle continuously

  43. 42. What type of molecule is this? saccharide

  44. 43. An immunologist studying infectious viruses usually look for what? • the mechanism used by the virus to infect cells

  45. 44. Different organisms share the exact same genes even though they are not closely related. What is this evidence of? • share a genetic code

  46. 45.The diagram shows taxonomic groups and a major distinguishing characteristic of all but two of them. What two terms complete the chart?

  47. 46. What is the source of carbon that forms glucose during photosynthesis? • carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

  48. 47. What are biomolecules that can change the rate of a chemical reaction? What large class of biomolecules do they belong to? Enzymes; Proteins

  49. 48. Why is it important to always develop new, more effective antibiotics to use against bacteria? • Over time, more and more bacteria have become resistant to the antibiotics currently available

  50. 49. What do viruses and cells have in common? • Both contain proteins and genetic material