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Mirrors And Lenses. Chapter 23. Introduction. Images can be formed by plane or spherical mirrors and by lenses. Ray diagrams will be used. Plane and Curved Mirrors. Important terms: Object distance (p) Image Formed where light rays actually intersect or where they appear to originate

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • Images can be formed by plane or spherical mirrors and by lenses.
    • Ray diagrams will be used
plane and curved mirrors
Plane and Curved Mirrors
  • Important terms:
    • Object distance (p)
    • Image
      • Formed where light rays actually intersect or where they appear to originate
    • Image distance (q)
two types of images
Two Types of Images
  • Real image
    • Light rays actually intersect and pass through the image point.
    • May be formed on a screen
slide5
Virtual Image
    • Light rays only appear to come from the image point.
    • Cannot be formed on a screen
      • Example: images in flat mirrors
flat mirrors
Flat Mirrors
  • The image distance(q)always equals the object distance(p).

23.1, 29.1

flat mirrors summary
Flat Mirrors Summary
  • The image distance always equals the object distance.
  • The image height (h’) always equals the object height (h).
  • Images are left-right reversed.
  • Images are always virtual.
  • Images are always upright.
  • Lateral magnification (M) is always 1.
applications of flat mirrors
Applications of Flat Mirrors
  • Rearview mirrors in cars
  • Dressing room mirrors
  • Bathroom mirrors

242, 29.2

concave mirrors
Concave Mirrors
  • Concave mirrors are a part of a sphere.

236, 380

slide16
Images formed may be real or virtual.
    • The type of image depends upon the object location.
concave mirrors summary
Concave Mirrors Summary
  • Are a part of a sphere
  • Light reflects from the inner surface.
  • Images formed may be real or virtual.
    • Depends upon object location
  • Images may be upright or inverted.
  • Sometimes called converging mirrors
  • Focal length is positive.
important terms
Important Terms
  • Principal axis
  • Image point
  • Image distance (q)
  • Object distance (p)
  • Center of curvature C
  • Radius of curvature R
  • Focal point (F)
  • Focal length (f)

23.9

spherical aberration
Spherical Aberration
  • Spherical aberration is an undesirable characteristic that is present in all spherical mirrors
      • It may be eliminated by using parabolic mirrors.
parabolic mirror applications
Parabolic Mirror Applications
  • Satellite dishes
  • Car headlights
  • Flashlights
  • Projector bulbs
  • Astronomical telescopes
ray diagrams
Ray Diagrams
  • Front side and back side of the mirror
    • Light rays are always in front of the mirror.
      • This is taken to be the left side.
three important rays
Three Important Rays
  • The intersection of any two rays will locate the image.
  • Parallel rays that come from infinity always pass through the focal point
    • When the object is at infinity, the image is at the focal point

382, 188, 382, 383

equations for concave mirrors
Equations for Concave Mirrors
  • Magnification equation:
  • The mirror equation
applications of concave mirrors
Applications of Concave Mirrors
  • Shaving mirrors
  • Makeup mirrors
  • Solar cookers
convex mirrors
Convex Mirrors
  • Convex mirrors are a part of a sphere.

380

slide31
Images formed are always virtual.
    • They always lie behind the mirror.
convex mirrors summary
Convex Mirrors Summary
  • Are a part of a sphere
  • Light reflects from the outer surface
  • Images formed are always virtual
    • They always lie behind the mirror.
  • Images are always upright
  • Sometimes called diverging mirrors
  • Focal length is negative
ray diagrams for convex mirrors
Ray Diagrams for Convex Mirrors
  • Front side and back side of the mirror
    • Light rays are always in front of the mirror.
ray diagrams37
Ray Diagrams
  • See Figure 23.11
    • Three important rays (see pg. 765)

23.11, 240, 384, 23.12

slide38
Rays that come from infinity always pass through the focal point.
    • When the object is at infinity, the image is at the focal point.
equations for convex mirrors
Equations for Convex Mirrors
  • These equations are the same as before.
    • Magnification equation
    • The mirror equation
sign conventions for mirrors
Sign Conventions for Mirrors
  • SeeTable 23.1on page 765
applications of convex mirrors
Applications of Convex Mirrors
  • Side view mirrors on cars
  • Shoplifting mirrors
questions
Questions

1 - 4, 7

Pg. 783

images formed by refraction
Images Formed By Refraction
  • Sign conventions
    • See Table 23.2 on page 770
apparent depth
Apparent Depth
  • Flat refracting surfaces
    • Apparent Depth(q)vs. Actual Depth(p)
      • n1 is below the surface

23.16, 243

atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric Refraction
  • The Sun is not where it appears to be.
    • It can be seen even though it is below the horizon.
  • Sun dogs and Moon dogs
    • Halos on cold winter days or nights
      • Refraction through hexagonal ice crystals
  • Mirages

23.21

thin lenses
Thin Lenses
  • A thin lens is a piece of glass or plastic which is ground so that its surfaces are segments of either spheres or planes.
    • A thin lens acts like two prisms.
refraction in optical instruments
Refraction in Optical Instruments
  • Thin lenses are used to form images by refraction in optical instruments
    • Cameras
    • Projectors
    • Microscopes
    • Telescopes
    • Binoculars
    • Magnifying glasses

248, 249

the thin lens equation
The Thin Lens Equation
  • The lens equation is virtually identical to the mirror equation.

23.23

common lens shapes
Common Lens Shapes
  • Converging lenses
    • Biconvex
    • Convex-concave
    • Plano-convex
  • Diverging lenses
    • Biconcave
    • Convex-concave
    • Plano-concave

64, 66, 67

convex lenses
Convex Lenses
  • Convex lenses form virtual images when the object is within the focal length of the lens.
    • Example: a simple magnifying glass.
  • Convex lenses form real images when the object is beyond the focal length of the lens.

250

concave lenses
Concave Lenses
  • Concave lenses never form real images.251
thin lens concepts
Thin Lens Concepts
  • Focal point(F)
    • Thin lenses have two.
    • Parallel light rays pass through the lens and converge or appear to originate here.
  • Focal length(f)

68

magnification equation
Magnification Equation
  • Equation for magnification:
thin lens equation
Thin Lens Equation
  • Thin-lens equation:
lens maker s equation
Lens Maker’s Equation
  • R1 is for the surface closest to the object
slide57
The front of the lens
    • The side from which light approaches
sign conventions
Sign Conventions
  • Sign conventions (Table 23.3) pg. 775
    • Extremely important!
ray diagrams59
Ray Diagrams
  • Ray diagrams (similar to mirrors)
    • Three important rays
    • Rays that come from infinity always pass through the focal point.
      • When the object is at infinity, the image is at or appears to be at the focal point.
    • The intersection of two rays will locate the image.

247, 23.25, 69, 70

thin lens combinations
Thin Lens Combinations
  • The image formed by the first lens serves as the“object”for the second lens.

256

spherical aberration63
Spherical Aberration
  • Similar to that produced by mirrors
    • In mirrors, it can be reduced by using parabolic surfaces.
      • Parabolic mirrors are used in headlights, satellite dishes, searchlights, and astronomical mirrors.
      • Parabolic surfaces are more expensive to make.

23.30

chromatic aberration
Chromatic Aberration
  • Chromatic aberration results because different wavelengths have different indices of refraction.
  • Chromatic aberration is produced by lenses but not by mirrors.
slide66
Chromatic Aberration may be reduced by using combinations of converging and diverging lenses made from different types of glass
    • This is expensive.
questions67
Questions

9 - 13

Pg. 784