Male Reproductive System. Chapter 48 10/20/08. Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System. The male reproductive system consists of the scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, ejaculatory duct, internal urethra, and penis. Scrotum .
A thin sac that encloses each of the two testicles in separate compartments.The scrotum contracts into thick folds during fear, anger, arousal, or cold,drawing the testes close to the body for protection and insulation.
The function of the scrotum is essential for spermatogenesis.
Cryptorchidism, or failure of the testicles to descend from the abdomen into the cooler scrotum, may result in sterility.
During sexual arousal, parasympathetic nerves release neurotransmitters that cause the cavernosal arteriole walls to relax.
Radionuclide imaging may be done to assess testicular abnormalities such as torsion, tumors, abscesses, epididymitis or hydrocels.
A 4 week course of antibiotics usually is prescribed for acute bacterialprostatitis, and up to 16 weeks of therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis (Bactrium/Cipro)
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be treated with a single daily doseof an alpha-adrenergic blocker to improve voiding by relaxing the bladderneck and prostate.
Consider the alternative--Saw Palmetto effectively relieves urinary symptomsassociated with BPH without reducing the size of the prostate. Also, itreduces serum levels of PSA, which could give a false-negative result inpatients with prostate cancer.
A suprapubic prostatectomy is performed through the bladder by way of a lowabdominal incision.
A retropubic prostatectomy employs a low abdominal incision on the front ofthe prostate. The bladder is not cut.
A perineal prostatectomy requires an incision between the scrotum and theanus to gain access to the prostate.
Autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes affects the ability of nervesto relax the smooth muscle surrounding the tiny sinuses of the erectilechambers (which means, adequate filling with blood for an erection may not be possible)
Vascular surgery to clear blocked arteries is not usually recommended forpeople with diabetes.
Cryptorchidism must be corrected within the first 18 months of life to give the best chance for fertility.
Men with undescended testes have a 10 to 30 times higher incidence of testicular cancer, even if the condition is corrected.
Whether medical or surgical therapy is indicated, it is performed after the first birthday and before the second birthday.
Risk for Injury- Some patients with testicular cancer undergo radicalretroperitoneal lymph node dissection. These patients have extensive surgicalincisions and usually need intensive nursing care initially. As with any majorabdominal surgery, the patient is at risk for shock, infection, bowel andbladder dysfunction, and fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Situational Low Self-Esteem- After radiotherapy, the patient's sperm counttypically declines at first but usually returns to normal by 2 to 3 yearsafter treatment is completed.
Sometimes "watchful waiting" is recommended for patients with a life expectancy of less than 10 years.
Radiation alone often is effective when the cancer is confined to the prostate.
The adverse effects of all these agents can include hot flashes and ED.