ERGONOMICS IN TENNIS RACKET ARNOULD Benjamin GREGORZKI Brice MOUFFLARD Paul RODRIGUES Chris
What do you know about tennis racket ? • According to you, what the ancestor of tennis ? • Whatis the date of tennis racket creation ? • Whythere are oversizedkind of rackets ? • What are the ergonomicsinvolvement in Rackets ?
History of tennis racket • Appeared with the Jeu de Paume, the first wooden racket was created in 1505 • Tennis was born at the end of the XIXth century • The second sport practiced in France : 1 102 921 members in 8 217 affiliate clubs in 2011
Regulations and Standards • Size • They are defined by the rules of the ITF International Tennis Federation • Standardization of the racket • NF ISO 11416 defines the components and physical parameters and terminology to be adopted by all manufacturers
Evolution of Tennis RacketUntil the 1930s : The Wood • Headsize : substantially spherical or square 16.2 cm in width and 16.5 cm in length. • The grip is made of wood and cork or bare does not have octagonal shape with flat surfaces and chamfers. • The strings is natural gut of sheep or beef. • Design is almost absent.
Evolution of Tennis RacketFrom the 1930s to 1960s : the classicism and laminatedwood • Leather grip • Strings are always in naturalgut of sheep. • Nylon appearedat the end of the 50’s.
Evolution of Tennis RacketThe seventies : the changes • Metal frames easier to produce. • Wood frames change to double branchwithstillsmallhead. • The grip stretch out for the twohand’s flip side. • First frames in fiber • The synthetics strings becomewidespread • Bighead patent (PRINCE) in 1976
Evolution of Tennis RacketThe 1980’s : carbonfibers, composites • Increasing power of composite racquets • Progressive disappearance of wood • Research new forms : midsize and largesize head • Design more pronounced • Commercial life is reduced • Metal for the average range
Evolution of Tennis RacketThe 1990’s : Supremacy of composite • Generalization of composites • Supremacy of midsizehead • Relegation of metal • Simplifications of forms • Development of technicals concepts • Aerodynamism, flexibility, rigidity, new headsize design • Kid/Adultcompleteassortment
Evolution of Tennis Racket2000 : Explosion of technology • Generalization of midsizehead • New technology innovation • Specialcolor and design • Carbon nanotube
Headsize racket • Length : 39,7 cm max • Width : 29,21 cm max • Surface : 709,67 cm² max
Weight and Length • Weight for children and beginners : • Varies between 200 g and 270 g • Juniors and competitors : • Varies between 270 and 360 – 370 g • The length: • Children : varies from 50 to 67,5 cms • Adult : varies from 68,5 to 71 cms
Accessory • Anti-vibrator : • Reduce and absorbshocks to avoid injuries • Grip and sur-grip : • Absorb the perspiration • Better sensation • Stip of lead : • Modify the weight and the balance for better adaptation of player
Innovation withneither future • Over time, more or less fanciful innovations have been created • INPI and “google patents” data bases give the latest and other more traditional.
Example of innovation withneither future • Brian Battistone, is the first playerwhoplayswith racket withtwo grips. He reachedwithhis racket the 853 th in single and the 88 th rank mondial in double ranking.
Future • The rules of raquet size are frozen and limitedcreativity • Main innovation trail are : • Material • Manage vibrations control • Stringing • Accessory (tennis racket cover, bag…)
Future • Play and connect : • Captorswhich records • Movements • Ball’seffect • Power striking
Bibliography and references • http://blog-tennis-concept.com/ • http://fft.fr/ • http://www.tcvv.fr/