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Bellringer #3. What do you already know about the Protestant Reformation? Who was involved? When did it begin? What were some of the new ideas? Write 1 paragraph!. The Protestant Reformation. Chapter 14 Sections 3 & 4. Essential Questions.

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bellringer 3
Bellringer #3
  • What do you already know about the Protestant Reformation? Who was involved? When did it begin? What were some of the new ideas?
  • Write 1 paragraph!
the protestant reformation

The Protestant Reformation

Chapter 14 Sections 3 & 4

essential questions
Essential Questions
  • What were the characteristics of Northern Renaissance (Christian) Humanism?
  • What were the chief ideas of Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism?
  • What role did politics play in the creation and spread of the Protestant Reformation?
causes of the reformation
Causes of the Reformation
  • Renaissance ideas (humanism, glorification of the individual)
  • The Catholic Church after the Middle Ages was weaker (plague, political control)
  • Printing press (allowed information to spread faster, allowed lay people to read the Bible for themselves)
northern renaissance christian humanism
Northern Renaissance(Christian) Humanism
  • Taken from Italian Renaissance humanism’s study of the classics
  • Goal was to reform Christendom
  • Desiderius Erasmus
    • Studied original Christian texts
    • Handbook of the Christian Knight – Christianity should show how to live, not be rules to get saved
    • Praise of Folly (1511) – criticized popes
corruption of the church
Corruption of the Church
  • Renaissance Popes (1450 – 1520)
    • Worried about Italian politics (Papal States)
    • Financial problems (buying art)
  • Pluralism
  • Absenteeism
  • Indulgences
    • Sell of salvation
  • People wanted a more meaningful religious experience
martin luther
Martin Luther
  • Born in Germany (Nov. 10, 1483)
  • Studied law until deciding to become a monk
  • Studied the Bible
  • New idea – justification by faith
  • Salvation was not through good works, but through faith
martin luther1
Martin Luther
  • Selling of indulgences angered Luther
    • Pope Leo X trying to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica
    • Johann Tetzel
  • Ninety-Five Theses (October 31, 1517)
    • Wittenberg, Germany
    • Attack on the church and the sell of indulgences
    • Printed copies spread throughout Germany
  • Pope Leo X excommunicates in Jan. 1521
  • Diet of Worms-Luther was made an outlaw
lutheranism
Lutheranism
  • Translated New Testament into German
  • Salvation through faith alone (not through the church)
  • Bible is only source of religious truth
  • Peasant’s War
    • Sided with rulers to keep peace
  • The Peace of Ausberg
    • The division of Christianity was formally accepted
bellringer 4
Bellringer #4
  • Explain what is meant by justification by grace through faith alone.
  • List three major areas of corruption within the Catholic Church that led to the Reformation.
  • According to Erasmus, what should be the chief concerns of the Christian Church?
swiss reforms zwinglianism
Swiss Reforms (Zwinglianism)
  • Huldrych Zwingli (1484 – 1531)
  • Like Lutheranism – salvation through faith alone
  • Different
    • Wanted a theocracy (church city-state) in Zurich
  • Zwingli’s forces defeated by Catholics
swiss reforms calvinism
Swiss Reforms (Calvinism)
  • John Calvin – born in France in 1509
  • Studied theology, law, and humanism
  • Wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion
    • Predestination – belief that God is all powerful and predestined those who were saved
  • Geneva – began to reform as a theocracy
english religious reform
English Religious Reform
  • Henry VIII – wanted a male heir
    • Catherine of Aragon – daughter Mary
      • Nephew was Charles V of HRE
  • Asked pope for a divorce, pope denied
  • Henry turns to Parliament for help
    • Act of Supremacy (1534) – King became head of English church, not the pope
  • Church keeps most Catholic traditions
english religious reform1
English Religious Reform
  • Henry’s Wives
    • 6 wives = 1 son
  • Edward VI (sickly, dies in teens)
    • Protestant reforms put in changes to the Anglican Church
  • Mary (“Bloody Mary”) – Catholic, burned Protestants at the stake
  • Elizabeth I – Protestant, Anglican Church
    • Puritans – “purify” the English church
anabaptists
Anabaptists
  • Did not want states to have power over religion
  • Favored by middle and lower class
  • Adult baptism, all members equal
  • Separation of church and state
    • Would not hold political office or fight in the army
catholic reformation
Catholic Reformation
  • Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
    • Ignatius of Loyola
    • Spread Catholicism
  • Council of Trent
    • Re-affirmed traditional Catholic beliefs
    • Ended selling of indulgences
  • Inquisition
    • Censorship
  • Art
    • Latin only language to read the Bible
    • Baroque style – emotional
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