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Unit 3: Integumentary System. Chapter 5. What is integument?. Integument/Integument system: Debated as to whether or not your skin is an organ or organ system Accounts for 16% of body weight 2 Major Components: 1-Skin or Cutaneous Membrane Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis

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what is integument
What is integument?
  • Integument/Integument system: Debated as to whether or not your skin is an organ or organ system
  • Accounts for 16% of body weight
  • 2 Major Components:
    • 1-Skin or Cutaneous Membrane
      • Epidermis
      • Dermis
      • Hypodermis
    • 2-Accessory Structures
      • Nails
      • Exocrine glands
functions of integumentary system
Functions of Integumentary System
  • Protection
  • Excretion (salts, water, organic wastes)
  • Maintenance of body temp
  • Synthesis of vitamin D3
  • Storage of nutrients (adipocytes)
  • Detection of touch, pressure, pain, etc.
cutaneous membrane
Cutaneous membrane
  • Skin
    • Epidermis (superficial)
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis (deep)
  • Thin skin=made of 4 layers of stratified Squamous tissue
    • Most of body
  • Thick skin=made of 5 layers
    • Hands and feet
layers of epidermis
Layers of Epidermis

Made of Stratified Squamous epithelium

  • Stratum Corneum (superficial)
  • Stratum Lucidum
  • Stratum Granulosum
  • Stratum Spinosum
  • Stratum Basale or Germinativum (deep)
    • Cells eventually pass through all layers or can eventually be found
stratum corneum
Stratum Corneum
  • Surface skin (most superficial)
  • Highly keratinized: thick, interwoven
  • 15-30 days to get from stratum basale to stratum corneum
  • Stay at stratum corneum for 2 weeks b/f shed
  • Loose 500 mL (1 pint) water a day through skin
  • Blisters: water retention between dermis/epidermis under high stress
stratum lucidum
Stratum Lucidum
  • Found in thick skin
    • Glassy, tough
    • Filled with keratin
      • Fibrous proteins—make up your hair and nails
    • Layer missing in “thin” areas
stratum granulosum
Stratum Granulosum
  • “Grainy Layer”
    • 3-5 layers
    • Have stopped dividing at this time
    • High in keratin
      • Makes cells flatter and thinner
stratum spinosum
Stratum Spinosum
  • “Spiny Layer”
  • 8-10 layers
  • Langerhans Cells =participate in immune response
stratum basale
Stratum Basale
  • Innermost
  • Closest to basement membrane
  • Sends projections into dermis (below basement membrane)
    • Called epidermal ridges
    • Give skin the whorls of fingertips
  • Basal cells =stem cells to make more skin
  • Merkel Cells =sense touch where no hair is present
  • Melanocytes =skin tone
skin color
Skin Color
  • Due to interaction of Epidermal Pigmentation and Dermal Circulation
epidermal pigmentation
Epidermal Pigmentation
  • 2 Pigments that control your skin color
    • 1-Carotene (orange-yellow)
      • Found in stratum corneum
    • 2-Melanin (brown, yellow-brown, black)
      • Found in stratum basale
      • protects us from UV radiation
      • Melanocytes produce
        • Dark skin = increased amount of Melanin production not increased amount of individual Melanocytes
dermal circulation
Dermal Circulation
  • Gives pale or flushed look
  • Better circulation =flushed
  • Reduced circulation=pale
why uv radiation is bad
Why UV-Radiation is bad!
  • Damages DNA of the cell, causing mutations and promoting cancer development
  • Read bottom of 147(Melanocytes-Dermal Circulation)
why uv radiation is good vitamin d3
Why UV-Radiation is good! Vitamin D3
  • When exposed to sun, epidermal cells make D3, then the liver converts D3, and the kidney makes calcitriol.
    • Calcitriol=ability to absorb calcium and phosphorous

(no calcitriol=impaired bone maintenance and growth)

epidermal conditions
Epidermal Conditions
  • Freckles
    • Areas where melanocytes are producing a higher than normal rate of melanin.
  • Birthmarks
    • Non-vascular
      • Overgrowth of melanocytes
  • Tattoo’s
the dermis
The Dermis
  • Papillary Layer
    • Areolar tissue, capillaries, sensory neurons
    • Supplies epidermis

2. Reticular Layer

    • Collagen and elastic fiber
wrinkles and stretch marks
Wrinkles and Stretch Marks
  • Collagen fibers=strong, resists stretching BUT bend easily
  • Elastic fibers=stretch and return

=flexible, elastic dermis

    • Aging, hormones, and excess UV = weakened fibers  Wrinkles
    • Excessive stretching past fibers capabilities lead to damaged fibers=stretch marks
      • Caused by: pregnancy, major weight loss/gain
    • SOLUTION: Retin-A from vitamin A increases blood flow to dermis which increases chances for repair
accessory structures hair
Accessory Structures-Hair
  • 5 million hairs
  • 98% not on head
  • Hair Follicle=organ when hair is grown
  • Hair Root=anchors hair to skin
  • Hair Shaft=part you see
accessory structures hair1
Accessory Structures-Hair
  • Is hair living?
    • No-Comprised of non-living cells
    • Hair follicles are
  • How is color determined?
    • Pigment produced by melanocytes
    • The biochemistry of these structures is affected by DNA
    • Hormonal/Environmental affects
functions of hair
Functions of Hair
  • Protection (eye lashes, head, sensory, ears, nose)
  • Root hair plexus=sensory nerve around each hair follicle
  • Arrector Pilli-smooth muscle attached to hair follicle=when stimulated, contracts, causes “goose bumps”
    • Stimulated by emotional states, response to cold
growth and replacement of hair
Growth and Replacement of Hair
  • Hair growth cycle=2-5 years
  • .33mm/day
  • Hair loss occurs when the follicle becomes inactive and shrinks
  • Over time, the connection breaks=hair loss
  • The old hole sheds, new one forms
hair real life application
Hair: Real Life Application
  • Male Pattern Baldness
    • Decrease in hormones circulating in the blood
  • Alopecia
    • 1 in every 100,000
    • Complete hair loss all over body
    • Genetic
    • Causes death of hair follicles
accessory structure glands in the skin
Accessory Structure-Glands in the Skin
  • Sebaceous (Oil Glands-Holocrine)
    • Share a duct with hair
    • Waxy, oil secretions
  • Apocrine Sweat Glands (armpits, around the nipples, groin)
    • Odorous, sticky
    • Through hair follicle
    • Begin at puberty
  • MerocrineSweat Glands (all other sweat)
    • 2-5 million
    • High numbers in palms/soles
accessory structure nails
Accessory Structure-Nails
  • Provides protection to finger
  • Nail Body cover nail bed
  • Production at nail root
  • Lunala is pale=lack of blood vessels
  • Is dead, tightly compressed keratin packed cells
the hypodermis or subcutaneous
The Hypodermis or subcutaneous
  • Not part of integument but important for stabilization
    • Areolar/Adipose tissue
    • Elastic
    • Area for injections