Tap to Outlet Home Certification SCTE DVAC Chapter 4/18/12 Larry Jump JDSU Field Applications Engineer 814 692 4294 firstname.lastname@example.org
Today's Agenda • Home Certification Overview • What is Home Certification? • Why do we need it? • What is the technology? • Certifying the Home • Home Certification Challenges in the field • What affects Services • What can and should be done • Questions and Answers
Why Home Network Certification? • Estimated that 70-75% of all trouble calls are due to problems inside the home. • Estimated that between 90-95% of troubleshooting root cause of service issues inside a home is coax path related • Replacing connectors, splitters, faulty coax, etc… • Craftsmanship • This is consistent with both QAM and MoCA services • QAM signals are more susceptible to issues • QAM signals are maxed out • Now more susceptible to other issues • Greater customer satisfaction through a more reliable network • Home certification has been proven to reduce costly repeat truck rolls.
Why should we do this “certification”? • The best answer is: – to provide short and long term customer satisfaction by: • Reducing repeat visits • Reducing overall truck rolls over time • Reducing unnecessary Refer to Maintenance calls • Providing test data to tech responding to escalation • Being prepared for future technologies • Another step closer to One and Done
$125 install tech truck roll $125 network tech truck roll $125 service tech truck roll Find and Fix Dilemma • Missing marginal installations often leads to 3-1 find and fix scenario Network Tech Field Tech Field Tech • 3 truck rolls that should have only required 1, 3-1 • At $125/roll, cost for repair was $375 or $250 extra cost! • At $100/month average customer revenue, and a 50% margin, that means that about 5 months of profit are gone from this customer • Saving only 1.5 - 2 events per month, pays for a field instrument that can help prevent this scenario in less than 12 months.
What goes wrong? • Excessive attenuation caused by too many splitters or long cable runs • A drop amplifier that does not pass the entire required spectrum • Un-terminated splitters or outlets • Poor crimping or other connector issues • Cable faults or other conductor flaws • Many of these flaws are caused by poor craftmanship!
Why do we need to certify the home? • Upcoming technologies will require an even more robust home network. • MoCA supports a full-mesh network between all nodes, procedures must be modified to rate all segments, not just from the initial splitter to outlets but also STB-to-STB segments that may not include the initial splitter. • Any number of components could be the cause, including bad connectors and splitters, amplifiers, band pass filters, un-terminated cables or excessive noise, distortion or interference that affects the part of the spectrum.
Benefits of Certification Customer doesn’t call Boss Boss doesn’t get mad at tech Tech doesn’t take it out on dog Happy Customers Happy Boss Happy Dog Happy Tech
Find Root Cause of Service Issues • Troubleshooting Philosophy: • Quickly find and fix the root cause of 80-90% of in-home related issues – the Coax • Allow operators to determine all Triple-Play & other newer services will work before connecting any CPE devices! • Certify the home’s coax plant over all frequencies is correct • It doesn’t matter what service is running on the coax • Future proof for eventual additional revenue
Why do we need to do this • Remember the Goal – • Help assure that work (service, install, etc.) is done correctly the first time, and verified with quantitative test data, hence reducing repeat service calls. • You can ensure that the proper tests are taken for every required job and the test data is recorded. • Testing is consistent across all techs and jobs • Test data is reconciled against the work order systemQuality standards are enforced for each job
What is Home Cert? • Testing • Tap to TV, Modem, or Set Top Box • The span of the network the Service /Install Tech controls. • Using the test equipment provided • Standardization • All customers get the same testsAll Techs run the same tests • Apple to Apples • Verification • Ensure that the testing was done correctly • Assurance • Ensure that corrective action is taken if required • Reporting • Provide compliance information to managers and technicians • Data Collection
Why this, instead of other back office tools? • Because you are the one with the tool belt • Because you can move the test equipment around while you troubleshoot. • Outlet to Ground Block to Tap • Know at once when you have fixed, or found the location of the problem • Provide measurement history at that location for future reference.
Summary so far • Run the tests at jobs that require a test to be run • Results are compared to user defined Pass/Fail limits • Pass/Fail limits should be such that a fail means “must fix” • Fix problems uncovered • Or validate they need escalation ( via test at Tap) • Re-run test to verify correction of problems • Results are reported in terms of number of tests: • that actually were performed versus number that SHOULD have been performed • Number of tests passed • Reporting is available grouped by System, Manager, Supervisor, or Technician. • Goal is to achieve and maintain high compliance and passing numbers
By successfully implementing Home Certification • Reduce repeat rate – lowering repeats caused by marginal signal conditions • Create a system wide standard for acquiring & interpreting test results • Results in standard and consistent procedures that ensure quality based on quantitative test data • Improve productivity by reducing repeat service calls • Improve customer satisfaction levels, as customers do not have to keep experiencing the same problem • Provide a central repository for test data provides management reports, trends for data analysis, efficiency of technician and productivity
Daily electronic file with Work Order Information from billing system Import Report Saved Test Results sent at end of day. Management Reports Management Reports Test Result Queries System Workflow Diagram TPP Relational Database Web Server Save test files taken at jobs into Folders
Another view TAP House Drop Cable TPP Relational Database Web Server OLDER TV SET Stores test data, Compares test from meter with workorderdata DIGITAL SET-TOP Work Order File from Billing System Workorder info from Billing System COMPUTER Digital Voice High Pass Filter 2-Way Amplifier GROUND BLOCK ETHERNET
How Work Orders are matched with Test Results • CSG, DST, ICOMSs, Custom • Minor differences between vendors • Information in Work Order File: • assigned Tech, Work Order Type, job number, account number, completion codes, job status, and completion date, Node, system ID, etc. • Meter saves test named as account number or Job Number • Information from meter(saved tests): • Tech ID, Account Number or Job Number, Date/Time Saved, and of course, the test measurement data Server:Application and Database Work order Info Test Data
Meter Synchronization Process • Synchronization (upload) process allows tech to send data back to the server • Also allows channel plans, test plan setup and , limit plans to be sent to the meter. • Assure all meters use proper settings • Connect via the RF plant (DOCSIS channel) or Ethernet LAN, or available wireless networks. • The Certification test data is sent back and saved in Application Database and the Certification Reports are created from this database Server:Application and Database 2-way communication RF, Wireless, or Ethernet
Testing RF networks in the Home TAP House Drop Cable OLDER TV SET DIGITAL SET-TOP COMPUTER Digital Voice High Pass Filter 2-Way Amplifier GROUND BLOCK ETHERNET 3-Way Splitter ONLINE GAMING eMTA-CABLEMODEM
The Basics…..Where TAP House Drop Cable OLDER TV SET DIGITAL SET-TOP Which outlet should we test? Pretty much common sense-Voice-Data-Largest TV COMPUTER Digital Voice High Pass Filter 2-Way Amplifier GROUND BLOCK ETHERNET
The Basics…What do we test – RF Layer • Downstream RF • Level • C/N ( Analog – Remember Analog?) • Hum ( Analog – yep, still around, sometimes) • Video/Audio Carrier Delta ( difference) • MER • BER • (Drop Frequency Response) • Upstream RF • Upstream Tx Level • Upstream Tx Headroom
The Basics…What do we test - DOCSIS • Downstream • Level • MER • BER • Registration • Configuration file, Gateway IP, Modem IP, BPI Status • DOCSIS 3 Bonding • Upstream • Channel assignment and Bonding • Packet Loss • Throughput ( Speed) • VoIPcheck – simulated Digital Voice Packets
What do we test - Ingress Attic • Ingress can be included as one of the Home Certification tests • Can be run before or after the inside the home test POTS 3 1 5 4 2
Testing the Home for Ingress Contribution 7 dB TAP Disconnect drop from tap and check for ingress coming from customer’s home wiring Return Equalizer House Drop Cable OLDER TV SET WIRELESS LAPTOP DIGITAL SET-TOP If ingress is detected at tap end, repeat at ground block to localize COMPUTOR VoIP High Pass Filter 2-Way Amplifier GROUND BLOCK ETHERNET 3-Way Splitter ONLINE GAMING eMTA-CABLEMODEM INGRESS SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS
Troubleshooting Tests • What other tests does the tech have to troubleshoot if there is a problem: • DQI • QAM Ingress • DOCSIS Tests • Smart Scan
Limit ( Pass/Fail) Values Can be set for up to 8 locations
Understand the results screen – and act on what it tells you….know what failed and why
Certification: The tech needs to know how to….. • Know which job types to test • Know which outlet to test • Know which channel plan is the right one to use • Know how to name and save the test • Know how to understand what failed, if there is a fail • Know how to fix or report what failed, know how to escalate and verify why that escalation is needed. • Know how and when to synchronize the meter with the server.
New and upcoming? • MoCA • WiFi • DNLA
MoCA Parameters • MoCA uses the existing coaxial cable plant in a subscriber’s home as the connecting media for devices on a home network. • MoCA 1.1 provides a 16-node solution • 175 Mbps will always be available to more than 95 percent of the nodes • BER target of 1 x 10-9. • Communication between devices on a MoCA network is controlled by a node designated as the network coordinator (NC) • Nodes need to be able to transmit RF carriers at 55 dBmV to overcome splitter port to port isolation. Sometimes 2 splitters.
An In-Home Network, Physical Layer Attic Splitter Splitter Crawl Space NC
MoCA Node Discovery • A node joins a MoCA network by listening for a beacon signal from the NC • After receiving the beacon signal, a new node sends an admission request to join the network. • If no beacon is heard, the new node assumes it is the first and begins transmission of its own beacon. • MoCA 1.1 completes the probe and beacon tasks faster than its predecessor MoCA 1.0. This allows an increase in the maximum number of nodes from eight to 16 and provides a throughput increase from 100 to 175 Mbps network throughput for 95 percent of the nodes.
MoCA Optimization • In addition to cable, the subscriber’s plant also contains splitters and sometimes amplifiers. MoCA equipped devices also need to be able to communicate through high-isolation output ports, in the forward as well as reverse directions. • This is accomplished using a form of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) that is dynamically tailored to the individual paths in the subscriber’s coax network. • “Probe” signals are periodically sent to the MoCA nodes on the plant to determine frequency response at each of the OFDM subcarrier frequencies. • The optimal combination of constellation and frequency for each node is determined to achieve a BER of 1 x 10-9, resulting in constellations that can range from no symbols to 256-QAM • Because the electrical characteristics of the plant can change when the subscriber adds or removes devices, probes are sent on a periodic basis, and the OFDM scheme is changed as required.
MoCA 1.1Physical Layer • Operates between 850 and 1525 MHz • Each channel is 50 MHz wide in 1.1 or 100 MHz wide in 2.0 • In some cases, more than 1 channel is used at the same time to allow transport of 2 different logical networks.
MoCA Frequency Allocations MoCA 1.x Frequency View Downstream Range MoCA 1.x Range Upstream Range 850 – 1525 MHz 5 – 45 MHz 55 – 1000 MHz 5 MHz 55 MHz 1 GHz 1.7 GHz 50 MHz MoCA 2.0 Frequency View Downstream Range MoCA 2.0 Range Upstream Range 500 – 1650 MHz 5 – 45 MHz 55 – 1000 MHz 5 MHz 55 MHz 1 GHz 1.7 GHz 100 MHz
MoCA MAC Layer • The NC determines how the nodes gain access the network to transmit and receive Ethernet frames. • 2 types of MAC layer frames • Control frames contain management messaging • Bandwidth requests • Media Access Plans MAPs • Data frames contain the end user application data
In-Home Logical Layer Diagram Attic Node A Node B NC Crawl Space
MoCA 2.0 Details • MoCA 2.0 (June 15, 2010) - Similar to MoCA 1.1 but with the following differences: • Three new modes of operation: • Basline Mode: • 400+ Mbps MAC throughput • 700 Mbps PHY Rate • Single 100 MHz Channel • Enhanced Mode • 800+ Mbps MAC throughput • 1.4 Gbps PHY Rate • Two bonded 100 MHz Channels (“Channel Bonding”) • “Turbo” mode for a point-to-point configuration that allows: • 500+ Mbps MAC throughput between two connected devices when operating in Baseline mode • 1+ Gbps MAC throughput when operating in Enhanced mode • All three modes now have an extended frequency range • 500 MHz through 1650 MHz (center frequencies) • Backward compatibility with MoCA 1.0 and 1.1 devices • MoCA 2.0 devices can operate at MoCA 2.0 speeds while MoCA 1.x devices are communicated to at their maximum respectable speeds on the same network NOTE: MoCA 2.0 is different hardware than previous MoCA 1.1 HW versions
What does the future hold for home networks? • WiFi has already surpassed wired in home networks • Apple sold 3 million IPads within the 1st 3 months of it’s release • There are now approximately 108 million IPhones worldwide • While WiFi is widely used for data, up until now it has been deemed not reliable enough for video due to interference from such things as microwave ovens and cell phones. • 802.11n now provides for data rates up to 600Mbs on a 40MHz wide carrier • 802.11n also provides for the concept of multiple input multiple output (MIMO), providing for a maximum of four transmit antennas and four receive antennas. • 802.11n also provides for Dynamic digital beamforming,it monitors and adjusts the Wi-Fi signals based on real-time events that could affect performance. In combination with the 4 x 4 antenna scheme, beamformingcan provide a 12dB-to-25dB improvement in reliability • With these 2 innovations, video can now be delivered reliably over wireless
More not too distant future stuff, DLNA • Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) promotes wired and wireless interoperability of PCs, CEs, and mobile devices. • A DLNA device works like any other network device by discovering other DLNA-enabled hosts. • It learns their capabilities and exposes these features on the device's control display. • Through DLNA, a media server can be located and then summoned to play or display a stored family photo, movie, music file, etc. • DLNA-certified devices include TVs, PCs, set-tops, routers, game consoles, tablets, Blu-ray and DVD players, smartphones and audio receivers. • The organization says it has certified more than 9,000 different devices. • More than 440 million DLNA-certified devices were installed in users’ homes by the end of 2010