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  1. Module 1 Basics www.sara-project.net

  2. Plan Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • World Energy consumption • EU Energy consumption and dependence • Warnings • Energy in Building and E.U. Policy • Energy and Power Basics

  3. 1. World Energy Consumption www.sara-project.net

  4. World Energy Consumption (1) Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  5. World Energy Consumption (2) Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Today the World consumes energy at the rate of 12.8 TW • By 2050 energy consumption rate is predicted to double to 28 TW !! (1 TW = 1012 W (J/s)) • Current annual world energy consumption = 12.8 x 1012 x 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 J = 4 x 1020 J / annum

  6. Primary Energy Sources Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Fossil fuels • Oil • Gas • Coal • Nuclear • Fission • Fusion • Renewables • Solar • Wind • Biomass • Ocean Power

  7. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Coal mine

  8. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Electricity generation using coal to power steam turbines

  9. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Oil extracting rig

  10. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Gas pipeline

  11. Global energy resources and consumption Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Renewable energy resources (J/ yr) Conventional energy resources (J) 1024 Solar 1023 Coal Gas 1022 Wind Oil 1021 Biomass Uranium 2020 1020 2000 Hydropower 1019 1970 Geothermal Primary world energy supply (J/yr) 1018 Tidal 1017

  12. R/P ratios Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  13. 2. E.U. Energy Consumption and Dependence www.sara-project.net

  14. EU Energy Bills Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • The EU is an important customer on the international energy scene. • In 1997, the bill for energy imports into the EU was EUR 120 billion • The EU absorbs 14–15 % of world energy consumption and is the biggest world importer of oil (19 % of world consumption) and of natural gas (16 % of the planet’s requirements) • In 1999, the bill for oil in the EU was EUR 240 billion. • The price went through the roof in 2000. More than half the sum paid ended up in the coffers of Middle East oil producers.

  15. Consumption by Sector Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Industrial consumption stable Transport is the leader in growth of energy demand (OIL!!) Energy demand in new member states will grow by 5% p.a.

  16. EU Energy Balance and Dependency Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Energy consumption is rising by 1-2% per year There is sufficient coal but it is too expensive to mine

  17. EU-25 could become ~70% dependent on imports (BAU) Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  18. Transport Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Accounts for 67% of the demand for oil on which it is totally dependent (98%) • Energy intensity increased by 10% from 1985-98 • Growth forecasts from now to 2010 • 16% for cars • 90% for aircraft • 50% more road transport • External cost of congestion from transport is 2% of GDP

  19. Fossil Fuels Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • European economy is based mainly on fossil fuels • 80% of energy consumption in the EU • Two-thirds of fossil fuel requirements are imported • 2025 – Imports will make up 70% of EU total energy requirements

  20. North Sea Oil Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Expensive to exploit • Fields and reserves are limited. • Best case, represents a further 25 years of production or 8 years of consumption at current levels. • Costs of extraction are much higher than in the Middle East.

  21. Crude oil imports from non-EU countries in 2007 Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  22. Gas and Coal Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Natural gas from the North Sea is following the same pattern as oil. • Norway reserves represent 23 years of consumption at current levels • Community coal costs three to four times the world price. • Reserves are very extensive and increased with enlargement. • Problem of competitiveness will lead the EU to cut production drastically. • Practically only in the United Kingdom could coal production become competitive again.

  23. Natural Gas Imports from non-EU countries in 2007 Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  24. Uranium Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Europe holds 2 % of world uranium reserves • World prices are very low, hence increasing number of European mines are no longer competitive. • Vast amounts of uranium exist on the planet.

  25. Forecasts of renewable energy in E.U. energy mix. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  26. Sustainable energy in EU policies Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Local and regional development Environment Economic and social cohesion Reducing emissions of CO2 and other pollutants (acid rain, etc.) • Local job creation Security of supply Reducing imports, and diversifying supplies

  27. 3. Warnings www.sara-project.net

  28. The warnings Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Fossil fuels are finite • 1960s and 70s • Fossil fuels too expensive • Oil shocks in 70s • Global warming and climate change

  29. Dangers of Dependence Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Volume of imports • Political instabilities in many producer countries • Concentration of external supplies in small number of producer countries • Transport sector is 98% dependent on external oil supplies !! • Half of all EU electricity will be generated from natural gas by 2020-2030 • Increase of 10% in price of a barrel of crude oil reduces economic growth in the EU by 0.5% • Potential for social disruption

  30. JFM 2002 is clearly the warmest ever Temperature rise °C Hadley Centre/UEA Global temperatures 1860-2001 Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  31. Carbon Dioxide Levels Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Red: Business as usual emissions Pink: Constant 1990 emissions Green: 50% reduction in emissions

  32. Setting the scene: World CO2 emission by 2010 Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  33. Setting the scene: Past Global Warming Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  34. Setting the scene: Future Global Warming (1) Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  35. Setting the scene: Future Global Warming (2) Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  36. International agreements Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Kyoto Protocol 1997 • Targets for CO2 reduction • Clean development mechanism (CDM) • Joint implementation (JI) • Now to be ratified with Russia joining September 2004 • WSSD, Johannesburg • Renewable energy partnerships

  37. Kyoto targets Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Global emissions reduction 5.2% • CO2, CH4, NO, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 • Annex B countries only • EU – 8% • UK – 12.5%

  38. 4. Energy in Buildings and E.U. policy www.sara-project.net

  39. Energy Use in Residential and Commercial Buildings Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 Residential Commercial

  40. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  41. EU Energy and climate Policy Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 By 2020, EU objectives are : • Reduce greenhouse gases by at least 20% • and increases to 20% the share of renewable energies in the energy consumption • The emissions reduction will be increased to 30% by 2020 when a new global climate change agreement is reached.

  42. European Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • EPBD was published in January 2003. • far-reaching implications for the owners, operators and developers of all buildings in Europe (both domestic and non-domestic) • will play a vital role in delivering step-change in buildings-related energy efficiency.

  43. Key provisions of the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • minimum requirements for the energy performance of all new buildings • minimum requirements for the energy performance of large existing buildings subject to major renovation • energy certification of all buildings • display of certificates in public buildings over 1000m2 in size • regular mandatory inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings

  44. Issues for Better Buildings Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Insulation • walls, roofs, doors • windows, daylighting • Exposed thermal mass • Storage – heating in winter, cooling in summer • Controlled ventilation • Heating and Cooling Systems • boilers, hot water systems, CHP, • Lighting • low energy lighting and appropriate switches; communal lighting, • Domestic appliances • Renewable energy sources • solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, small scale wind energy, ground source heat pumps, biomass and biofuels • Health and safety issues

  45. Integrated Energy Solutions Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • Better buildings combine • Energy Efficiency Measures • Renewable Energy Generation

  46. Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  47. Setting the scene: Energy demand Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  48. Setting the scene: matching demand with Sustainable supply Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118

  49. 5. Energy and Power Basics www.sara-project.net

  50. What is Energy? Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings www.sara-project.net Contract:TREN/04/FP6EN/S07.31838/503118 • The potential to do work • Neither created nor destroyed • Conversion from one form to another • Radiation  chemical  thermal  electrical • Losses at every stage