SOLUTIONS, ACIDS, AND BASES. What is a solution?. Hummingbird food, hot tea, and coffee are solutions. . A solution is a homogenous mixture that has the same composition, color, density, and even taste throughout. . Solutes and Solvents.
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What is a solution? • Hummingbird food, hot tea, and coffee are solutions. • A solution is a homogenous mixture that has the same composition, color, density, and even taste throughout.
Solutes and Solvents • To describe a solution, you may say that one substance is dissolved in another. • The substance being dissolved is the solute, and the substance doing the dissolving is the solvent. • When a solid dissolves in a liquid, the solid is the solute and the liquid is the solvent.
Nonliquid Solutions • Solutions can also be gaseous or even solid. • All mixtures of gases are solutions. • Air is a solution of 78 percent nitrogen, 20 percent oxygen, and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.
Nonliquid Solutions • Sterling silver contains 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 percent copper. • Solid solutions are known as alloys. They are made by melting the metal solute and solvent together.
How Substances Dissolve • How do solids such as sugar dissolve in water? • The dissolving of a solid in a liquid occurs on the surface of the solid.
How Substances Dissolve • Like the particles of any substance, water molecules are constantly moving. • Also, water molecules are polar which means they have a positive area and a negative area. • Molecules of sugar are also polar.
How It Happens Step 1 Moving water molecules cluster around the sugar molecules as their negative ends are attracted to the positive ends of the sugar molecules.
How It Happens Step 2 Water molecules pull the sugar molecules into solution.
How It Happens Step 3 Water molecules and sugar molecules spread out to form a homogeneous mixture.
Dissolving Liquids and Gases • Particles of liquids and gases move much more freely than do particles of solids. • When gases dissolve in gases or when liquids dissolve in liquids, this movement spreads solutes evenly throughout the solvent, resulting in a homogenous solution.
Dissolving Solids in Solids • Although solid particles do move a little, this movement is not enough to spread them evenly throughout the mixture. • The solid metals are first melted into liquid form and then mixed together. In this liquid state, the metal atoms can spread out evenly and will remain mixed when cooled.
Rate of Dissolving • Sometimes the rate at which a solute dissolves into a solvent is fast and other times slow. • There are several things you can do to speed up the rate of dissolvingstirring, increase surface area, and increasing temperature are three of the most effective techniques.
Stirring a solution speeds up dissolving because it brings more fresh solvent into contact with more solute. • The fresh solvent attracts the particles of solute, causing the solid solute to dissolve faster. Stirring
Surface Area • Another way to speed the dissolving of a solid in a liquid is to grind large crystals into smaller ones. • Large crystals dissolve in water slowly because the amount of surface area is limited. • Increasing the amount of surface area by creating smaller particles increases the rate of dissolving.
Temperature • Increasing the temperature of a solvent speeds up the movement of its particles. • This increase causes more solvent particles to bump into the solute. As a result, solute particles break loose and dissolve faster
Controlling the Process • Each technique, stirring, crushing, and heating, is known to speed up the rate of dissolving by itself. However, when two or more techniques are combined, the rate of dissolving is even faster. • Knowing how much each technique affects the rate will allow you to control the rate of dissolving more precisely.
Section Check Question 1 A mixture that has the same composition, color, and density throughout is a _______. A. solvent B. solute C. solution D. substance
Section Check Answer The answer is C. A mixture that has the same composition, color, and density throughout is a solution.
Section Check Question 2 The substance being dissolved in a solution is the __________. A. aqueous phase B. media C. solute D. solvent
Section Check Answer The answer is C. The substance doing the dissolving is the solvent; the substance being dissolved is the solute.
Section Check Question 3 Which of these factors does not affect solubility? A. container size B. crystal size C. surface area D. temperature
Section Check Answer The answer is A. Speeding up movement of the particles by stirring and increasing the temperature, and decreasing the crystal size all increase the dissolving rate of a solute.
How much can dissolve? • If you continue adding sugar to lemonade, eventually the point is reached when no more sugar dissolves and the excess granules sink to the bottom of the glass. • Solubility-the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature.
Comparing Solubilities • The amount of a substance that can dissolve in a solvent depends on the nature of these substances. • In one beaker, 1 g of solute A dissolves completely, but additional solute does not dissolve and falls to the bottom of the beaker.
Comparing Solubilities • 1 g of solute B dissolves completely, and two more grams also dissolve before solute begins to fall to the bottom. • If the temperature of the water is the same in both beakers; you can conclude that substance B is more soluble than substance A.
Concentration • A concentrated solution is one in which a large amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent. • A dilute solution is one that has a small amount of solute in the solvent.
Precise Concentrations • Concentrated and dilute are not precise terms. However, concentrations of solutions can be described precisely. • One way is to state the percentage by volume of the solute.
Types of Solutions–Saturated • A saturated solution is a solution that contains all the solute it can hold at a given temperature.
Saturated Solutions • As the temperature of a liquid solvent increases, the amount of solid solute that can dissolve in it also increases. • This table shows the amounts of a few solutes that can dissolve in 100 g of water at different temperatures, forming saturated solutions. • What are the trends?
Solubility Curves • Each line on the graph is called a solubility curve for a particular substance. • You can use a solubility curve to figure out how much solute will dissolve at any temperature given on the graph.
Unsaturated Solutions • An unsaturated solutionis any solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature. • Each time a saturated solution is heated to a higher temperature, it becomes unsaturated.
Supersaturated Solutions • A supersaturated solution is one that contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. • Supersaturated solutions are unstable. • For example, if a seed crystal of sodium acetate is dropped into the supersaturated solution, excess sodium acetate crystallizes out.
Solution Energy • As the supersaturated solution of sodium acetate crystallizes, the solution becomes hot. • Energy is given off as new bonds form between the ions and the water molecules. • Called?
Solution Energy • Another result of solution energy is to reduce the temperature of the solution. • Some substances, such as ammonium nitrate, must draw energy from the surroundings to dissolve. Called? • This is what happens when a cold pack is activated to treat minor injuries or to reduce swelling.
Solubility of Gases • Shaking or pouring a solution of a gas in a liquid causes gas to come out of the solution. • An example of a solution of a gas dissolved in a liquid is a soft drink. • Agitating the solution exposes more gas molecules to the surface, where they escape from the liquid.
Pressure Effects • Soft drinks are bottled under increased pressure. • When the pressure is released, the carbon dioxide bubbles out.
Temperature Effects • Another way to increase the amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid is to cool the liquid. • This is just the opposite of what you do to increase the speed at which most solids dissolve in a liquid.
Section Check Question 1 What is solubility? Answer Solubility is the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature.
Section Check Question 2 A(n) __________ solution is any solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature. A. electrolyte B. saturated C. supersaturated D. unsaturated
Section Check Answer The answer is D. A saturated solution contains all the solute it can hold at that temperature, but an unsaturated solution can hold additional solute.
Section Check Question 3 Which is true of a supersaturated solution? A. conducts electricity in water B. can dissolve more solute at a given temperature C. cannot form crystals when additional solute is added D. unstable
Section Check Answer The answer is D. Supersaturated solutions are unstable; solute readily crystallizes from solution when seed crystals are added.
Ion Formation in Solution • Did you know that there are charged particles in your body that conduct electricity? • Some of these help nerve cells transmit messages. • These charged particles, called ions, are in the fluids that are in and around all the cells in your body.
Ion Formation in Solution • The compounds that produce solutions of ions that conduct electricity in water are known as electrolytes. • Some substances, like sodium chloride, are strong electrolytes and conduct a strong current. • Strong electrolytes exist completely in the form of ions in solution.
Ion Formation in Solution • Substances that form no ions in water and cannot conduct electricity are called nonelectrolytes. • Among these are organic molecules like ethyl alcohol and sucrose.
Ionization • Ionic solutions form in two ways. • Electrolytes, such as hydrogen chloride, are molecules made up of neutral atoms. • To form ions, the molecules must be broken apart in such a way that the atoms take on a charge. • This process of forming ions is called ionization.
Ionization • Both hydrogen chloride and water are polar molecules. • Water surrounds the hydrogen chloride molecules and pulls them apart, forming positive hydrogen ions and negative chloride ions.
Ionization • Hydrogen ions are often shown as H3O+ to emphasize the role water plays in ionization.
Dissociation • The second way that ionic solutions form is by the separation of ionic compounds. • Dissociation is the process in which an ionic solid, such as sodium chloride, separates into positive and negative ions.