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Energy. Ene r g y C onsumption W ood se r v ed as t he p r edomi nant ene r g y sou r c e until the Industrial R e v olu t ion, w hen c oal usa g e surpa s sed w ood. During the 2 0 t h c entu r y , pet r oleum surpa s sed c oal.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

EnergyConsumption Woodservedasthepredominantenergysource untiltheIndustrialRevolution,whencoalusage surpassedwood.

Duringthe20thcentury,petroleumsurpassedcoal.

slide3

MostenergyintheUS isusedbyindustries, followedbytransportation,residential,andcommercial.

slide4

Inthe1950’s,energyconsumptionintheUSoutpaceddomesticproduction, leadingtooil

imports. By1998,netimportsofoilsurpassedthe domesticsupplyof oil.

global e ne r g y u se
GlobalEnergyUse

IntheUS,mostoftheenergycomesfromnonrenewable energysourcessuchascoal, oil,naturalgas,anduranium.

Renewableenergyresources includebiomass,geothermal, hydropower,solarenergy,andwindenergy.

slide6

Coal

Coalisafossilfuelproducedbytheburialandcompactionofancientorganicmatterunderhightemperatureandpressure. Sulfurisproduced from thedecompositionofhydrogensulfide(H2S)by anaerobicbacteriatrappedinthecoal.

slide8

Coal

Coalsupplies25%oftheworld’senergy. IntheUSA,87%ofthecoalisusedforpowerplantstoproduce electricity.

Coal is burned toturnwaterintosteamwhichturnsgiantturbinesinsideelectricalgenerators.

a d v anta g es of c oal
AdvantagesofCoal

•AbundantworldandUSreservesthatwill lasthundredsofyears

•Unidentifiedreservesthatareestimatedtolastthousandsofyears

•Relativelyhighnet-energyyield

•USgovernmentsubsidieskeeppriceslow

•Stable, non-explosive,notharmfulifspilled

•Canbeturnedonandoff easilytocontrolenergyoutput

disa dv anta g es of c oal
DisadvantagesofCoal

•Miningforcoal isdestructiveontheenvironment,decreasebiodiversity,andincreasepollutionrunoff

•Burningcoalreleasesmercuryandsulfurintotheair.

•35%of allCO2emittedintotheairisduetotheburningof coal

•30%of allnitrogenoxiderelatedpollution

•Coalcannotbeusedeffectivelyfortransportationneeds

slide11

CleanCoal

Cleancoaltechnologyreferstotheprocessesthatreducethenegativeenvironmentaleffectsof burningcoalsuchaswashingcoaltoremove mineralsandimpuritiesandcapturingsulfurdioxideandcarbondioxidegases.

slide12

Peat

Peat forms from the compaction of partially decayed plant material.(looks like soil)-Peat is the 1st step in coal formation

slide14

Peat Advantages

Peat is abundant in NW Europeand cheapPeat burning gives off less air pollutantslike sulfur oxide than coal and oil

slide16

Oil

Oilisanotherfossil fuelproducedbythe decompositionof deeplyburiedorganicmaterial (plants) underhightemperaturesand pressuresformillionsofyears.

oil is r el e as e d b y dril l ing a w ell an d pu ncturing the limes t one l a y e r

Oil

Oil isreleasedbydrillingawellandpuncturingthelimestonelayer.

Sincetheoil isalreadyundergreatpressure,theoilflowsnaturallyfromthewell.

slide18

Oil

Oncethecrudeoil iscollecteditissenttoarefinerywhereitis“cracked”orseparatedintodifferenttypesofoil byboiling.

a d v anta g es of oil
AdvantagesofOil

•Inexpensivebutpricesareincreases

•Easilytransportedthroughestablishedpipelines

•Highnet-energyyield

•Amplesupplyfortheimmediatefuture

•Versatile–usedtomakemanyproducts(paints,plastics,medicines)

disa dv anta g es of oil
DisadvantagesofOil

•Worldreservesarelimitedanddeclining

•Producespollution(SO2,Nox,andCO2)

•Causeslanddisturbancesduringdrillingprocess

•Historyofoilspillsbothonlandandinoceanfromplatformsand tankers

•Disruptiontowildlifehabitats

•Suppliesarepoliticallyvolatile

oil spills on l and
OilSpillsonLand

800,000gallonsintoKalamazoo RiverinMichiganfromCanadian pipeline(2010)

oil spills on l and1
OilSpillsonLand

420,000gallonsof oilspilledintoMississippiRiver

whentwobargescollided.(2008)

oil spills on l and2
OilSpillsonLand

30,000litersfrompipelineinto theRed DeerRiverin Alberta Canada(2008)

4.5million litersof oil spilled into thePeace RiverinCanada

(2011)

oil spi l ls on w a t er
OilSpillsonWater

DeepwaterHorizonOil Spill intotheGulfofMexico (April,2010)

Released 4.9millionbarrelsofoil

oil spi l ls on w a t er1
OilSpillsonWater

•1967–UnitedKingdom –Tankeraccident -919,000gallons

•1970’s–6 oceanoil spills

•1983–SouthAfrica–TankerFire–1.8million barrels

•1989–Alaska,USA– ExxonValdez–Tankeraccident– 240,000barrels

•1990–California,USA–TankerLeak–300,000gallonsintoreserve

•1991–Kuwait–Iraqinvasion-240million gallons

•1990’s–25otheroceanoilspills

•2000–2005–24oceanoil spills

•2005–9 incidents–HurricaneKatrina

•2006–2010–15 oceanoil spills

•2010–13incidents–DeepwaterHorizon

•2011–10oceanoilspills

slide26

EnergyCrisis

Thepriceof energyisdriven bysupplyanddemand. Insomecases,andenergycrisisisbroughtonbythe failureof worldmarketstoadjustpricesinresponseto shortages.

slide27

OPEC

OrganizationofPetroleumExportingCountries.

Association of nations with large oil reserves that control oil supply

o p e c
OPEC

WhenOPECreducestheoutputquotasofitsmembercountries,thepriceof oilincreasesasthesupply decreases.

WhenOPECboostsoil productiontoincreasesupplies,thepriceofoildecreases.

slide29

NuclearEnergy

Nuclearfissionoccurswhenanatomsplitsintotwo ormoresmallernucleialongwithbyproductsof neutrons,photons,gamma rays,betarays,andalpha particles.

slide30

NuclearEnergy

Nuclearfissionisanexothermicreactionproducingheat. Undercontrolledconditions,theheatisused toproducesteamthatturns aturbinetogenerateelectricityatnuclearpowerplants.

slide31

NuclearEnergy

  • Theamountofpotentialenergycontainedin nuclearenergyis10milliontimesmorethanthatoffossilfuels.
  • Thedownsideisthatthenuclearwastesremainhighlyreactiveforthousandsofyears.
n u c l e ar f u e ls
NuclearFuels

ThemostcommonnuclearfuelsareUraniumandPlutonium

uranium n u c lear w eapons
Uranium NuclearWeapons

LittleBoy- Hiroshima

n u c l e ar f u e ls1
NuclearFuels

NuclearpowerplantusebeganintheUSAduring

the1960’sandincreaseduntilthelate1980’s.

Declineinthebuildingofnewplantswasduetocostoverruns,high operatingcosts,safetyissues,andnuclearwastes.

n u c l e ar power plants
NuclearPower Plants

The reaction takes place in the reactor core with fuel rods

Controlrodsslowdown thereaction.

Watercoolantremovesthe heatandproducessteamtogenerateelectricity.

slide37

Coolant Water

Lightwaterreactorsuselake or riverwaterascoolants. Theradioactivewaterdoesnotcomeincontactwith thewaterusedascondenserthatcomesfroma nearbyriverorlake.

a d v anta g es of n ucl e ar p o w er
AdvantagesofNuclearPower

•Noairpollutants

•Disruptionoflandislowtomoderate

•Waterpollutionislow

disa dv anta g es of n ucl e ar p o w er
DisadvantagesofNuclearPower

•Nuclearwastestakemillionsofyearstodegrade

•Storageproblem–safetyandterrorists

•Safetyissues

slide40

ThreeMileIsland

ThreemileislandwasapartialnuclearmeltdowninPennsylvaniain1979whenareliefvalvewasstuck open,allowingthenuclearreactantcoolantto escape.

slide41

Chernobyl

In1986,theChernobylnuclearpowerplantintheformerSovietUnionexperiencedanexplosionand firethatreleasedlargeamountsofradioactiveparticlesintotheatmosphere.

slide42

Chernobyl

Therewere28deathsduetoacuteradiation syndrome, mostlyamongthefiremen,15deaths fromthyroidcanceralready,andaprojectedtotalof 4,000 futuredeathsfromcancer.

Abandonedcityof Pripyat withChernobylinthe distance

Adults Teenagers Children

slide43

Japan

TheFukushimaDaiichiplant,240km(150miles) northeastof Tokyo,waswreckedbyahugeearthquakeandatoweringtsunamiwhichknocked outitscoolingsystems, triggering meltdowns, radiationleaksandmassevacuations. (2011)

slide44

Natural Gas

Naturalgas,ormethane,isproduced bythe decompositionofburiedorganicmatterunderhigh pressureandtemperatures.

n atu r al gas
Natural Gas

Naturalgasisusuallypresentimmediatelyabovetheoil.

a d v anta g es of n atu r al gas
AdvantagesofNaturalGas

•Pipelinesinplace

•Relativeinexpensive,butpricesareincreasing

•Highnetenergyyield

•Produceslesspollutionthanotherfossilfuels

disa dv anta g es of n atu r al gas
DisadvantagesofNatural Gas

•Pollutionisreleasedduringprocessing

•LeakageofmethanehasagreaterimpactonglobalwarmingthanCO2

•Extractionreleasescontaminatedwastewaterandsaltwater

h y d r oelectric p o w er
HydroelectricPower

Hydroelectricpowerusesdamstotrapwaterwhich isused to turn turbines thatgenerateelectricity.

h y d r oelectric p o w er p r os
HydroelectricPowerPros

•Damscontrolflooding

•Lowoperatingandmaintenancecosts

•Nowasteproduct

•Longlifespan

•Highenergyyield

•Createsareasforwaterrecreation

h y d r oelectric p o w er c ons
HydroelectricPowerCons

•Createlargefloodedareas,displacingpeople

•Expensivetobuild

•Destroyswildlifehabitats

•Interruptfishmigration

•Sediment builds up

•Subjecttoearthquakes

c olo r ado r i v er
ColoradoRiver

TheHooverDam, built inthe1930’s,has reduced the amount of water reachingMexico byway of theColoradoRiver to1/10 thatitused tobe before thedam.

ColoradoRiverinMexico

al t ernat i v e ene r g y
AlternativeEnergy

Alternativeenergysourcesinclude:solar,wind,

biomass,geothermal,andwaveenergy.

slide54

SolarEnergy

Solarenergyconsistsofcollectingandharnessingradiantenergyfromthesuntoprovideheatand/or electricity. Solar panels areused togenerate electricity.

solar ene r g y
SolarEnergy

SolarenergyAdvantages:

•Supplyofsolarenergyislimitless

•Littleenvironmental impact

•Low pollution

•Canstoreenergyduringdayforuseatnight

SolarenergyDisadvantages:

•Inefficientwheresunlightislimited

•Maintenancecostsarehigh

•Lowefficiency

slide56

HydrogenFuel Cells

Hydrogenfuelcellsuse hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electricity

slide57

HydrogenFuel Cells

FuelCellsAdvantages:

•Wasteproductispurewater

•Doesnotdestroywildlifehabitat

FuelCellDisadvantages:

•Takesenergytoproducehydrogen

•Hydrogengasisveryexplosive

biomass ene r g y
BiomassEnergy

Biomassisanycarbon-based,biologicallyderivedfuelsourcegrownspecificallyforbio-fuel.

•Corn

•Sugarcane

•Hemp

biomass ene r g y1
BiomassEnergy

BiomassAdvantages:

•Renewableenergysources(sustainable)

BiomassDisadvantages:

•Requiresland, water,fertilizer,andherbicides

•Airpollution

•Expensivetotransportduetoweight

•Notefficient

slide60

Wind Energy

Windturnsgiantturbinebladesthatthenpowergenerators.

AllofUSA’sdemandcouldbemetbywind intheDakotasandTexas

slide61

Wind Energy

WindAdvantages:

•Quicklybuilt

•Lowmaintenance

•Highenergyyield

•Nophysical pollution

•Multipleuseofland

WindDisadvantages:

•Fewsuitableplaces

•Visualandnoisepollution

•Interfereswithbirdmigration

slide62

WaveandTidalEnergy

  • Naturalmovementofwavesandtidesturnturbines thatgenerateelectricity.
  • FranceandBayofFundycontaintheonlyoperatingplantssofar.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=EnDJ6_XpGfo

w av e and tidal en e r g y
WaveandTidalEnergy

WaveandTidalAdvantages:

•Nopollution

•Minimalenvironmentalimpact

WaveandTidal Disadvantages:

•Constructionisexpensive

•Fewsuitablesites

•Equipmentcanbedamagedbystormsandcorrosion

slide64

GeothermalEnergy

  • Heatcontainedinundergroundrocksfrommagma producepocketsofundergroundsteamandhotwater.
  • Geothermalenergyusesthissteamtogenerateelectricity.
  • CurrentlyusedinHawaii, Iceland,Japan, Mexico,NewZealand,Russia,and California.