Ecology 101 Ecosystems and Symbiosis
Biosphere - The total water, land and atmosphere that can sustain life.
Biosphere Ecosystem – all of the living and non-living parts of an environment.
Biosphere Ecosystem Community – group of populations in a specific area
Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population – all the individuals of one species in a specific area.
Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Individual
Symbiosis A close relationship between two or more different species. • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism • Predation • Competition
Symbiosis • Mutualism – a relationship in which both individuals benefit • Commensalism • Parasitism • Predation • Competition
Mutualism • E coli (bacteria) live in our large intestines and get food from us. They give us vitamin K. (needed to clot blood)
Mutualism • Oxpecker (bird) sits on rhinos. Oxpecker eats the ticks on the rhino for food. Rhino gets the ticks taken off and gets warned of danger.
Mutualism • Clownfish and sea anemone. Clownfish get protection. Sea anemone gets food.
Symbiosis • Mutualism • Commensalism – a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped • Parasitism • Predation • Competition
Commensalism • Barnacles live on the shells of turtles. They get a place to live and the turtles are unharmed.
Commensalism • Remora fish harmlessly attaches itself to sharks and eats the leftovers from the shark’s meal.
Symbiosis • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism – a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
Parasitism • Fleas live on dogs (and other mammals) and drink their blood making the dog itchy and uncomfortable.
Parasitism • Parasitic wasps lay their eggs on other animals. The eggs hatch and eat the host.
Parasitism • Mistletoe grows on other trees and inserts its roots into the tree. The mistletoe gets nutrients, but the tree hosts have trouble growing and sometimes die.
Predation • Predation – when one organism feeds on another • Predator– organism that preys on and consumes animals. • Prey – an organism caught or hunted for food by another organism.
Competition - the struggle among organisms for food, space, and other vital requirements. They can be the same or different species.