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Managing TDS in the Upper Monongahela River Basin Project WRI 119. Paul Ziemkiewicz, PhD Director West Virginia Water Research Institute. Project Goals. Identify and monitor the primary components of TDS in the Upper Monongahela River Basin Identify the primary sources of TDS

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managing tds in the upper monongahela river basin project wri 119

Managing TDS in the Upper Monongahela River BasinProject WRI 119

Paul Ziemkiewicz, PhD

Director

West Virginia Water Research Institute

West Virginia University

project goals
Project Goals

Identify and monitor the primary components of TDS in the Upper Monongahela River Basin

Identify the primary sources of TDS

Understand the relationship between stream flow and [TDS]

Evaluate and develop efficient and effective methods for controlling TDS concentration

West Virginia Water Research Institute

pittsburgh basin major amd plants
Pittsburgh Basin-Major AMD plants

West Virginia Water Research Institute

major amd treatment plants upper mon river
Major AMD treatment Plants-Upper Mon River

West Virginia Water Research Institute

background on tds in the upper monongahela basin
Background on TDS in the Upper Monongahela Basin:

The river was dead due to untreated AMD prior to 1970

AMD treatment brought back fisheries

As UG mining moved down dip toward the center of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, salinity increased

No basin-wide flow/chemistry monitoring until mid 2009

TDS loads needed to understand assimilative capacity

West Virginia Water Research Institute

elizabeth pa l d hourly sampling 2003 to 2008 tds mg l vs flow 0 5 000 cfs
Elizabeth PA L/D Hourly sampling: 2003 to 2008[TDS] mg/L vs. Flow 0-5,000 cfs

Assimilative

Capacity ?

West Virginia Water Research Institute

elizabeth pa l d hourly sampling 2003 to 2008 tds mg l vs flow 5 000 10 000 cfs
Elizabeth PA L/D Hourly sampling: 2003 to 2008 [TDS] mg/L vs. Flow 5,000-10,000 cfs

West Virginia Water Research Institute

elizabeth pa l d hourly sampling 2003 to 2008 tds mg l vs flow 10 000 cfs
Elizabeth PA L/D Hourly sampling: 2003 to 2008 [TDS] mg/L vs. Flow >10,000 cfs

West Virginia Water Research Institute

estimated tds loads tpy from upper mon amd treatment plants
Estimated TDS loads (tpy) from Upper Mon AMD treatment plants

West Virginia Water Research Institute

slide10

WF 01 West Fork River DS Worthington, WV

  • TY 02 Tygart Valley River, Coalfax, WV
  • Mon 03 Monongahela River at MUB
  • DE 04 Deckers Creek in Morgantown
  • Mon 05 Monongahela River at Point Marion, PA
  • CR 06 Cheat River at tailrace of dam
  • DU 07 Dunkard Creek Shannopin Gage
  • Mon 08 Monongahela River at Masontown PA
  • WH 09 Whiteley Creek
  • TM 10 Tenmile Creek near Route 88
  • Mon 11 Monongahela River, Elizabeth PA
  • YR 12 Youghiogheny River near Sutersville, PA

West Virginia Water Research Institute

between 1940 and 2008 the flow in the upper monongahela river was 2 800 cfs 65 of the time
Between 1940 and 2008 the flow in the Upper Monongahela River* was > 2,800 cfs 65% of the time

West Virginia Water Research Institute

dunkard ck tds concentration and load vs flow july 09 to jan 10
Dunkard Ck: TDS concentration and load vs. flow July 09 to Jan 10

mg/L

West Virginia Water Research Institute

flow vs ec july 09 to feb 10
Flow vs. EC: July 09 to Feb 10

West Virginia Water Research Institute

distribution of tds in dunkard ck 2008
Distribution of TDS in Dunkard Ck-2008

West Virginia Water Research Institute

distribution of tds in dunkard ck 200825
Distribution of TDS in Dunkard Ck-2008

West Virginia Water Research Institute

how much tds can enter the mon while maintaining a tds of 500 mg l
How much TDS can enter the Mon while maintaining a [TDS] of 500 mg/L?

West Virginia Water Research Institute

coal industry tds working group
Coal Industry TDS Working Group
  • Formed in January 2010
  • Consists of the major coal producers in the upper Monongahela basin
  • Supported by ongoing TDS monitoring and assessment carried out by the WV Water Research Institute

West Virginia Water Research Institute

slide28

The relationship among:flow, TDS Load and resulting [TDS] in Dunkard Ck.Remember: the total load from AMD treatment plants normally ranges between 100,000 to 300,000 tpy

West Virginia Water Research Institute

slide29

Where:

  • L= cumulative TDS load (tpy) from all AMD treatment plants in the watershed
  • La =TDS load (TPY) allowable to meet target in-stream TDS concentration (TDSt)
  • Pi = pumping rate (gpm) at a given AMD plant
  • Qs = Stream flow (cfs)
  • TDSt=target TDS concentration (mg/L)
  • TDSi= TDS concentration (mg/L) from a given AMD plant
  • TDSs = in-stream TDS concentration (mg/L)
  • FOS = Factor of Safety
  • n = number of AMD treatment plants in the watershed
  • i = individual AMD treatment plant

West Virginia Water Research Institute

the math is straightforward and therefore predictive ability is high
The math is straightforward and therefore predictive ability is high:

West Virginia Water Research Institute

For example, for a watershed with three AMD treatment plants: (i= 1,2,3),

P=2,500 gpm, TDS = 5,000, then L1 = 27,500 tpy

P=5,500 gpm, TDS = 10,000, then L2 = 121,000 tpy

P=7,500 gpm, TDS = 6,000, then L3 = 99,000 tpy

Total = L = 247,500 tpy

managing tds in the monongahela river basin things that can be done in the near term
Managing TDS in the Monongahela River BasinThings that can be done in the near term
  • Develop relationship between flow and TDS
  • Management tools:
    • Identify Assimilative Capacity
    • Coordinate release of treated AMD With higher river flows
      • What are the critical flows in the Mon and the tributaries?
      • Manage by month? Season? Instantaneous flow?
  • Will require:
    • Monitoring program: chemistry and flows
    • Organization/Coordination: Industry TDS Working Group
    • Understanding of mine water storage capacities
    • More responsive pumping systems
  • Alternatively we’ll probably see end of pipe discharge limits for TDS

West Virginia University

conclusions
Conclusions:
  • None of the TDS constituents are cumulative or toxic at reasonable concentrations
  • Upper Mon AMD plants generate between 200,000 and 500,000 tpy of TDS
  • That accounts for between 20 to 100% of TDS in the Mon
  • For much of the year the Mon can easily assimilate that sort of loading while maintaining a [TDS] below 500 mg/L
  • It should be possible to develop a managed, load-weighted discharge program to control [TDS] at the desired levels
  • That will require organization, commitment , transparency and accountability

West Virginia Water Research Institute

questions
Questions?

Managing TDS in the Monongahela River

Paul Ziemkiewicz, PhD

Director

West Virginia Water Research Institute

West Virginia University

West Virginia Water Research Institute