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Motivational Interviewing for Change Process. By Rex Gatto, Ph.D. Gatto Associates, LLC 750 Washington Road Suite 14 Pittsburgh, PA 15228. Review. Table of Contents. Expected Results and Measurability. Introduction. Motivational Interviewing:

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motivational interviewing for change process

Motivational Interviewing for Change Process

By Rex Gatto, Ph.D.

Gatto Associates, LLC

750 Washington Road Suite 14

Pittsburgh, PA 15228


Motivational Interviewing:

Focuses on exploring ways to resolve ambivalence (conflict of ideas or uncertainty)

Motivational process is to facilitate change

Does not impose change that is not consistent with the person's own values and concerns

Think about the different generations now in the workplace


Motivational Interviewing:

Does not replace the corrective action process when corrective action is warranted

Is not appropriate for all situations (it is up to the manager to decide when it is appropriate based on what MI is). 

Utilizing MI depends on the maturity and acceptance of the person (behavior, history, rapport with you and others)

Describe your approach

ways to motivate persons
Ways to Motivate persons

Listen to persons’ needs

Acknowledge how persons feel

Be honest

Support teamwork


Challenge/job innovation

Promote satisfaction between worker and job

motivating boomers
Motivating Boomers

Listen to persons’needs

Security, work ethic and advancement

Self actualization through work, personal growth, and self improvement

Health and wellness

Involvement and team work

Recognition, feel rewarded, and participatory management

motivating gen xer s
Motivating Gen Xer’s

Diversity with challenging work,

Global thinking through connectivity and the internet, life balance or flexibility to work, non traditional hours, and in mobile locations

Loyalty is directed more to managers than the organization, fun, informality, and self reliance, Lewis (2005).

Gen X is the generation that is more concerned about building resumes full of experiences and references, not long-term relationships with organizations. Loyalty Unplugged Buchene& Kovary (2007).

motivating gen yer s
Motivating Gen Yer’s

Optimistic, civic minded, confident and achievement oriented

High Tech savvy, social media, texting, internet learners

Sociable, moral, street smart, and diverse

“ME” generation who have never experienced losing

Received gold stars at school

Whole team received trophies

their opinions, listened to and their suggestions have been acted

It seems that they enter workplaces with the expectation = parents. Lewis (2005).

gen xer s and yer s
Gen Xer’s and Yer’s

Boredom ranks high on the Xers and Yers list of reasons to stay or leave a Firm.

Since some work is a routine function, Firms may be at risk.

What motivates: career opportunities, environmental policies, ethical companies, and a strong employment brand, approachablepartners/managers, less intimidating, focus on expectation and mentoring/coaching, and collaboration

Andrea Roberts Generation Y

self assessment
Self Assessment

Motivational Interviewing:

Rate yourself on a scale of (low)1-5 (high)

Put yourself in a work setting working with a direct report or peer.

We are going to explore how you interact to help people expand their thinking

If people change their thoughts they will change their actions!

self assessment1
Self Assessment

Motivational Interviewing:

Rate yourself on a scale of (low)1 - 5 (High)

Very collaborative?

Ask questions to instill motivation? How did you accomplish………. so well?

Draw out ideas for change?

Draw out and discuss others strengths?

Take the time to understand other’s point of view?

self assessment2
Self Assessment

Motivational Interviewing:

Rate yourself on a scale of (low)1 – 5 (high)

Help others to see the possibilities for change? “What is an alternative……?

Explore options with others?

Affirm what the person does well?

Ask questions to create new perspectives

Work hard to listen?

action plan
Action Plan
  • Strengths rating of 5-4

(very able to collaborate with others)

  • Areas for Development rating 3, 2, or 1 (low collaboration)
  • My Action Plan

Motivational Interviewing:

collaborative person-centered approach

method of guiding someone to bring out and strengthen motivation for change

focus on building rapport

gives a clear direction and “readiness for change”

Change can be very minor or extensive

what is mi
What is MI?

A collaborative conversation to strengthen a person’s own motivation for a commitment to change

Conversation about change (method of communication)

Collaboration (partnership, honors independence)

Evocative (wants the person on his/her own to be motivated and committed)

spirit of mi
Spirit of MI

Collaboration (between the partner/manager/supervisor and staff)

Drawing out (ideas for change)

Autonomy (independence)

collaboration vs confrontation
Collaboration vs.Confrontation

Partnership between the Partner, manager, supervisor and or staff, from the point of view and experience of the other person

Partner/manager/supervisor is not in the expert role (not confronting and imposing his/her perspective)

Build rapport and trust in a supportive relationship (can be challenging)

The relationship is to create mutual understanding not the partner/manager being right

drawing out vs imposing ideas
Drawing Out vs.Imposing Ideas

Draw out the staff’s own thoughts and ideas (not imposing your ideas)

Change comes from the person

Lasting change is more likely to occur when the other person discovers their own motivations and skill for change

Partner/manager/supervisor is not to tell the partner/manager/staff what to do (should do)

autonomy vs authority

Partner/manager is not the authority figure

True power rests within the individual

Ultimately it is up to the individual to follow through with making change happen (empower the individual)

Individual is responsible for their actions (partner/manager reinforce there is no one right way for change to occur, many ways to achieve change/goals)

principles of mi
Principles of MI

Expressed Empathy

Support Self-Efficacy

Roll with Resistance

Develop Discrepancy

Give concrete examples of each!

expressed empathy
Expressed Empathy

The person needs to be heard, understood (Manager is to see as the personsees it)

Seeing the world through the individual's eyes

Thinking about things as the person thinks

Feeling things as the person feel them

Sharing in the indivudal’sexperiences

support self efficacy
Support Self-Efficacy

The belief that the person has within them the capabilities to successfully change

Person believes change is possible (self-efficacy)

Person has hope that making difficult change is possible

Partner/Manager supports self-efficacy by focusing on previous successes of the person, highlighting skills and strengths the person has demonstrated

roll with resistance
Roll with Resistance

Resistance occurs when the person experiences conflict between their view of the problem/solution/autonomy as the partner/manager sees it

This can be due to the personreally not knowing what to do

Manager is not to confront the person (roll with it)

Do not challenge the person, ( no disagreement – yes but!)

Have the person state the problem and develop their own solution

roll with resistance1
Roll with Resistance

One person make a fist – partner get it open!

develop discrepancy
Develop Discrepancy

Motivation for change occurs when the person perceives a mismatch between “where they are and where they want to be”

Manager helps the person examine the discrepancies between their current circumstances and their desired futures goals

person needs to demonstrate motivation to make the needed changes (manager can help the person become more aware of how current behaviors/actions may not be helping them achieve their goals)

o a r s

Open ended questions: questions not easily answered with a yes or no, inviting elaboration and deeper thinking, explore possibilities

Affirmations: statements that recognize the persons strengths (build rapport) help the person see them self in a positive light (supporting self–efficacy)

Reflections: listening is crucial for expressing empathy, person feels the manager understands, guides the person toward change

Summaries: manager recaps what has been discussed, shows interest and understanding, may support the person to moving on

preparing for change d a r n
Preparing for ChangeD A R N

Desire: persons want to change

Ability: person realizes I can change

Reason: person realizes it is important to change

Need: person realizes I should change

implementing change c a t
Implementing ChangeC A T

Commitment: I will make changes at work or in my life

Activation: I am ready, prepared, and willing to change

Taking Steps: I am taking specific actions to change

powerful questions
Powerful Questions

What seems to be happening?

What possibilities do we/you face?

What are we/you going to do about it?

Powerful questions have a way to focus attention, change the way an person may look at something and make choices

Disarmingly simple, jar the known loose from present-thinking to move toward a fresh light

feedback mistakes
Feedback Mistakes

1. Speaking out only when things are wrong.

"Praise to a human being represents what sunlight, water and soil are to a plant –

the climate in which one grows best." - Earl Nightingale

2. "Drive-by" praise without specifics or an honest underpinning. - "Great job!"

3. Waiting until performance is substantially below expectations before acting on it.

4. Giving positive or negative feedback long after the event has occurred.

5. Not taking responsibility for your thoughts, feelings and reactions.

"This comes straight from the boss."

feedback mistakes1
Feedback Mistakes

6. Giving feedback through e-mail messages, notes, or over the telephone.

7. Giving negative feedback in public.

8. Criticizing performance without giving suggestions for improvement.

9. No follow up afterwards.

10. Not having regularly scheduled performance review meetings.

Giving and receiving clear, constructive feedback requires courage and skill.

It is essential to building good relationships with and motivating peak performance

from your persons.

feedback mistakes2
Feedback Mistakes

Be proactive. Nip issues in the bud

Be specific. It’s never easy to provide corrective feedback regarding someone’s work, but as a leader you can’t avoid it.

3. Develop a progress plan.

Link persons’ performance to organizational goals.

jack welch
Jack Welch
  • "When people make mistakes, the last thing they need is discipline”.
  • " Restoring self-confidence and encouragement is more effective than discipline to prevent more serious events resulting from a mistake”
six types of feedback
Evaluative: judgment about the person (worth or goodness; negative)

Interpretive: paraphrasing back what was said or done (what you think was said)

Supportive: supporting the other person in some way ( your did a great job!)

Developmental: helping the person change a behavior

Probing: Asking questions to find details (Listening)

Understanding: what was said and the intention

Six Types of Feedback
coaching feedback
  • To create consistency within the firm, people should have a clear understanding as to the motivational, behavioral actions they will take and what level of performance is needed.
  • Behaviors are discussed (debrief): highlights, strengths, and areas for development.
candid feedback feed forward
Candid FeedbackFeed Forward
  • The coaching process creates a mechanism for candid feedback that can support leadership, followership and teamwork, effectiveness and level of skill needed to accomplish individual, department/niche and firm goals
miracle questions
Miracle questions

What if, overnight a miracle occurred and you woke up tomorrow morning and the problem was solved, what would be the first thing you would notice?

What if, a miracle occurred and the obstacle no longer existed, what is the first thing you would do?

What if a miracle occurred and that person was not in our department, what would our department be like?

What if a miracle occurred and you had the budget you wanted, what is the first action you would take?

keys to success
Keys to Success

Focused energy

Diversity of thought

Creative action



New way of doing things

coaching process
Coaching Process

Concerned with change

Observable results

person’s thoughts about them self

How is the person perceived by others

strategies for change talk
Strategies for Change Talk
  • Ask open ended questions
  • Ask pros and cons
  • Ask positives and negatives
  • Ask for more details: in what way, tell me more, what does that look like, when was the last time that happened?
  • Look back and forward, what happened before, what happens if that continues
  • On a scale of 1-10 how important is it, why is it a # (2, 6, or 9) What can we/you do differently?
preparation questions
Preparation Questions

Not all questions will apply to each and every situation

1.What does the person want?

2.What are the person’s strengths? What are some possible “red flags”?

3. What is the person’s vision? What do you think might increase the person’s energy? What do you think might decrease the person’s energy?

4. What do you need to do to manage this situation? What do you need to do to remain non-directive?

preparation questions1
Preparation Questions

Not all questions will apply to each and every situation

5.What insights might the person need to make to increase his/her motivation and/or commitment to what is desired?

6.What does the person need to clarify?

7.What points or thoughts need to be explored by the person?

8.What choices/options/possibilities might the person entertain re: (direction; habits/patterns that would support goal attainment)

9.What self-observations might be useful for the person

preparation questions2
Preparation Questions

10. What kinds of self development might be appropriate for this person?

11. What “next steps” could the person take?

12. What kind of accountability might this person use?

13. How could you support this person?

14. Is this an person you could coach? If YES/No: Why

case studies
Case Studies

What actions,

questions, and approach

will you take and why?