Motivational Interviewing for Change Process. By Rex Gatto, Ph.D. Gatto Associates, LLC 750 Washington Road Suite 14 Pittsburgh, PA 15228. Review. Table of Contents. Expected Results and Measurability. Introduction. Motivational Interviewing:
By Rex Gatto, Ph.D.
Gatto Associates, LLC
750 Washington Road Suite 14
Pittsburgh, PA 15228
Focuses on exploring ways to resolve ambivalence (conflict of ideas or uncertainty)
Motivational process is to facilitate change
Does not impose change that is not consistent with the person's own values and concerns
Think about the different generations now in the workplace
Does not replace the corrective action process when corrective action is warranted
Is not appropriate for all situations (it is up to the manager to decide when it is appropriate based on what MI is).
Utilizing MI depends on the maturity and acceptance of the person (behavior, history, rapport with you and others)
Describe your approach
Listen to persons’ needs
Acknowledge how persons feel
Promote satisfaction between worker and job
Listen to persons’needs
Security, work ethic and advancement
Self actualization through work, personal growth, and self improvement
Health and wellness
Involvement and team work
Recognition, feel rewarded, and participatory management
Diversity with challenging work,
Global thinking through connectivity and the internet, life balance or flexibility to work, non traditional hours, and in mobile locations
Loyalty is directed more to managers than the organization, fun, informality, and self reliance, Lewis (2005).
Gen X is the generation that is more concerned about building resumes full of experiences and references, not long-term relationships with organizations. Loyalty Unplugged Buchene& Kovary (2007).
Optimistic, civic minded, confident and achievement oriented
High Tech savvy, social media, texting, internet learners
Sociable, moral, street smart, and diverse
“ME” generation who have never experienced losing
Received gold stars at school
Whole team received trophies
their opinions, listened to and their suggestions have been acted
It seems that they enter workplaces with the expectation = parents. Lewis (2005).
Boredom ranks high on the Xers and Yers list of reasons to stay or leave a Firm.
Since some work is a routine function, Firms may be at risk.
What motivates: career opportunities, environmental policies, ethical companies, and a strong employment brand, approachablepartners/managers, less intimidating, focus on expectation and mentoring/coaching, and collaboration
Andrea Roberts Generation Y
Rate yourself on a scale of (low)1-5 (high)
Put yourself in a work setting working with a direct report or peer.
We are going to explore how you interact to help people expand their thinking
If people change their thoughts they will change their actions!
Rate yourself on a scale of (low)1 - 5 (High)
Ask questions to instill motivation? How did you accomplish………. so well?
Draw out ideas for change?
Draw out and discuss others strengths?
Take the time to understand other’s point of view?
Rate yourself on a scale of (low)1 – 5 (high)
Help others to see the possibilities for change? “What is an alternative……?
Explore options with others?
Affirm what the person does well?
Ask questions to create new perspectives
Work hard to listen?
(very able to collaborate with others)
collaborative person-centered approach
method of guiding someone to bring out and strengthen motivation for change
focus on building rapport
gives a clear direction and “readiness for change”
Change can be very minor or extensive
A collaborative conversation to strengthen a person’s own motivation for a commitment to change
Conversation about change (method of communication)
Collaboration (partnership, honors independence)
Evocative (wants the person on his/her own to be motivated and committed)
Collaboration (between the partner/manager/supervisor and staff)
Drawing out (ideas for change)
Partnership between the Partner, manager, supervisor and or staff, from the point of view and experience of the other person
Partner/manager/supervisor is not in the expert role (not confronting and imposing his/her perspective)
Build rapport and trust in a supportive relationship (can be challenging)
The relationship is to create mutual understanding not the partner/manager being right
Draw out the staff’s own thoughts and ideas (not imposing your ideas)
Change comes from the person
Lasting change is more likely to occur when the other person discovers their own motivations and skill for change
Partner/manager/supervisor is not to tell the partner/manager/staff what to do (should do)
Partner/manager is not the authority figure
True power rests within the individual
Ultimately it is up to the individual to follow through with making change happen (empower the individual)
Individual is responsible for their actions (partner/manager reinforce there is no one right way for change to occur, many ways to achieve change/goals)
Roll with Resistance
Give concrete examples of each!
The person needs to be heard, understood (Manager is to see as the personsees it)
Seeing the world through the individual's eyes
Thinking about things as the person thinks
Feeling things as the person feel them
Sharing in the indivudal’sexperiences
The belief that the person has within them the capabilities to successfully change
Person believes change is possible (self-efficacy)
Person has hope that making difficult change is possible
Partner/Manager supports self-efficacy by focusing on previous successes of the person, highlighting skills and strengths the person has demonstrated
Resistance occurs when the person experiences conflict between their view of the problem/solution/autonomy as the partner/manager sees it
This can be due to the personreally not knowing what to do
Manager is not to confront the person (roll with it)
Do not challenge the person, ( no disagreement – yes but!)
Have the person state the problem and develop their own solution
One person make a fist – partner get it open!
Motivation for change occurs when the person perceives a mismatch between “where they are and where they want to be”
Manager helps the person examine the discrepancies between their current circumstances and their desired futures goals
person needs to demonstrate motivation to make the needed changes (manager can help the person become more aware of how current behaviors/actions may not be helping them achieve their goals)
Open ended questions: questions not easily answered with a yes or no, inviting elaboration and deeper thinking, explore possibilities
Affirmations: statements that recognize the persons strengths (build rapport) help the person see them self in a positive light (supporting self–efficacy)
Reflections: listening is crucial for expressing empathy, person feels the manager understands, guides the person toward change
Summaries: manager recaps what has been discussed, shows interest and understanding, may support the person to moving on
Desire: persons want to change
Ability: person realizes I can change
Reason: person realizes it is important to change
Need: person realizes I should change
Commitment: I will make changes at work or in my life
Activation: I am ready, prepared, and willing to change
Taking Steps: I am taking specific actions to change
What seems to be happening?
What possibilities do we/you face?
What are we/you going to do about it?
Powerful questions have a way to focus attention, change the way an person may look at something and make choices
Disarmingly simple, jar the known loose from present-thinking to move toward a fresh light
1. Speaking out only when things are wrong.
"Praise to a human being represents what sunlight, water and soil are to a plant –
the climate in which one grows best." - Earl Nightingale
2. "Drive-by" praise without specifics or an honest underpinning. - "Great job!"
3. Waiting until performance is substantially below expectations before acting on it.
4. Giving positive or negative feedback long after the event has occurred.
5. Not taking responsibility for your thoughts, feelings and reactions.
"This comes straight from the boss."
6. Giving feedback through e-mail messages, notes, or over the telephone.
7. Giving negative feedback in public.
8. Criticizing performance without giving suggestions for improvement.
9. No follow up afterwards.
10. Not having regularly scheduled performance review meetings.
Giving and receiving clear, constructive feedback requires courage and skill.
It is essential to building good relationships with and motivating peak performance
from your persons.
Be proactive. Nip issues in the bud
Be specific. It’s never easy to provide corrective feedback regarding someone’s work, but as a leader you can’t avoid it.
3. Develop a progress plan.
Link persons’ performance to organizational goals.
Interpretive: paraphrasing back what was said or done (what you think was said)
Supportive: supporting the other person in some way ( your did a great job!)
Developmental: helping the person change a behavior
Probing: Asking questions to find details (Listening)
Understanding: what was said and the intentionSix Types of Feedback
What if, overnight a miracle occurred and you woke up tomorrow morning and the problem was solved, what would be the first thing you would notice?
What if, a miracle occurred and the obstacle no longer existed, what is the first thing you would do?
What if a miracle occurred and that person was not in our department, what would our department be like?
What if a miracle occurred and you had the budget you wanted, what is the first action you would take?
Diversity of thought
New way of doing things
Concerned with change
person’s thoughts about them self
How is the person perceived by others
Not all questions will apply to each and every situation
1.What does the person want?
2.What are the person’s strengths? What are some possible “red flags”?
3. What is the person’s vision? What do you think might increase the person’s energy? What do you think might decrease the person’s energy?
4. What do you need to do to manage this situation? What do you need to do to remain non-directive?
Not all questions will apply to each and every situation
5.What insights might the person need to make to increase his/her motivation and/or commitment to what is desired?
6.What does the person need to clarify?
7.What points or thoughts need to be explored by the person?
8.What choices/options/possibilities might the person entertain re: (direction; habits/patterns that would support goal attainment)
9.What self-observations might be useful for the person
10. What kinds of self development might be appropriate for this person?
11. What “next steps” could the person take?
12. What kind of accountability might this person use?
13. How could you support this person?
14. Is this an person you could coach? If YES/No: Why
questions, and approach
will you take and why?