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Urbanization and Effects on Children. Elizabeth Davila & Caroline Steer. Urbanization What Does it Mean? Why Should We Care?. Increased Urbanization. A CAUSE: Increased Population in large areas such as New York City. An EFFECT: Debilitating Health Effects on Children.

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urbanization and effects on children

Urbanization and Effects on Children

Elizabeth Davila

&

Caroline Steer

increased urbanization
Increased Urbanization
  • A CAUSE: Increased Population in large areas such as New York City.
  • An EFFECT: Debilitating Health Effects on Children.
slide4
Today We Will Discuss

Urbanization and…..

Health Risks

Asthma

Housing

Race/Class

health risks
Health Risks

Lead Poisoning

Some Causes……

-Inhalation of flaking lead-based paint often used to paint road divisions and traffic signs in NYC(Blaise, 2006).

-lead pipes contaminating food and water(Hooker 2006).

Some Effects…….

-Iron deficiency

-Anemia

-Negative neurological effects

*All during childhood development.

(Kwong, 2004)

www.hud.gov

Often Found in older apartment buildings which includes subsidized housing, schools in poorer communities, and deep in the center of urban areas.

other health risks
Other Health Risks…

Water Contamination

Some Causes….

Old and worn water pipes in which lead and rust residue can contaminate bathing and drinking water in poor areas.

Some Effects….

-Disease

-Diarrhea

-Skin Infection

(Bartlett 2003)

Prüss et. al, 2002.

urbanization correlation to asthma
Urbanization & Correlation to Asthma

Asthma: “a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. The result is difficulty breathing.” (www.medicinenet.com).

Can be triggered by many environmental factors.

asthma cont d
Asthma Cont’d

Possible Triggers:

-Air Pollution (example: sulfur dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels)

-Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from high traffic areas (Lin et. al, 2000)

-Poor quality housing which can contribute to the spread of allergens from second hand smoke and roaches.

interesting fact
Interesting Fact

“Researchers have found that children in urban New York City are hospitalized at a rate higher than that of other Americans being hospitalized for asthma” (Corburn et. al, 2006).

housing in poor urban areas
Housing in Poor Urban Areas
  • Overcrowding
  • In close proximity to businesses
  • Racial Segregation
  • Isolation of the poor from mainstream
  • Deterioration

Can contribute to increasing rates of delinquency, developmental problems, and school violence.

(Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 24, 1996)

interesting fact1
Interesting Fact
  • Increase in truck traffic volumes near inner city homes, caused by urbanization in New York City, also results in high hospitalization rates of children with asthma.

(Environmental research, Vol. 88, issue 2, pp. 73-81, Feb. 2002)

race and class
Race and Class

**Urbanization is not necessarily a direct form of discrimination against the poor and people of color, but often leads to certain affects which tend to mainly affect these groups.**

race class cont d
Race & Class Cont’d
  • Deteriorating and dilapidated housing within the inner city is often filled with minority populations. (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical CARE Medicine, Vol. 162, Issue 3, pp. 873-877, Sept. 2000).
  • Environments resulting from urbanization can create a dichotomy between different socioeconomic classes and race.
example
Example
  • Children in economically disadvantaged areas are being physically affected by asthma while at the same time are unable to afford the most advanced treatments. Often times in poorer urban areas, children will end up with older medicinal technologies that can actually worsen asthma in the long run (Journal of Asthma, Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 31-35, Feb. 2006)
interesting fact2
Interesting Fact
  • “Asthma, one of the common effects of urbanization is the leading cause for ER evaluations, pediatric hospitalizations, and school absenteeism in New York City. The children making up these populations are largely of African American descent and low socioeconomic status”(Journal of School Health, Vol 76, p. 18, Jan. 2006).
conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • Urbanization is NOT an isolated practice!
  • The effects of Urbanization mentioned affect both adults and children, but children are more susceptible to these hazards.
  • Action must be taken
    • The affects are disproportionate
    • Affects the environment and human welfare
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