Karen Horney Personality Theory
Relationship to Freud 1. Published series of papers criticizing Freud and proposing a feminine psychology around 1930 2. Aspired to eliminate the fallacies in Freud's thinking, which she thought stemmed from a mechanistic, biological orientation 3. Considered Freud to erroneously overemphasize sexual motivation and conflict
4. The primary motivating factors are concerns over security and intrapsychic and interpersonal alienation 5. Neurotic persons create a protective structure to deal with their concerns 6. Penis envy is not the determining factor in women's psychology
7. Feminine psychology is based on lack of confidence and overemphasis of the love relationship 8. Aggression is a means of protecting oneself 9. Narcissism is overvaluation based on insecurity
Feminine Psychology The Male View of Women - womb envy Cultural Factors - male privilege The Masculinity Complex - “the entire complex of feelings and fantasies that have for their content the woman’s feeling of being discriminated against, her envy of the male, her wish to be a man and to discard the female role”.
4. The Overvaluation of Love - result of coming off as “second best in the competition for a man.” 5. Gender Neutrality
Basic anxiety Result of bad parenting - the basic evil 1. domination 2. indifference 3. erratic behavior 4. lack of respect for child's needs
5. lack of real guidance 6. disparaging attitudes 7. too much admiration 8. absence of admiration
9. lack of reliable warmth 10. having to take sides in parental disputes 11. too much or too little responsibility 12. overprotection
13. isolation from other children 14. injustice 15. discrimination 16. unkept promises 17. hostile atmosphere
Basic hostility Conflict between basic anxiety and basic hostility
The Structure of Neurosis • Role of Culture and Context • Structure vs. Genesis
The Real Self “The real self is what we refer to when we say that we want to find ourselves . . . It is the possible self - in contrast to the idealized self, which is impossible of attainment”.
Neurotic solutions • * Moving toward people • - the compliant solution • * Moving against people • - the expansive solution • Moving away from people • - detachment
Basic Conflict Overreliance on one of the neurotic solutions. Other defenses tend to operate unconsciously and are manifested in a disguised manner.
Moving toward people Their values “lie in the direction of goodness, sympathy, love, generosity, unselfishness, humility; while egotism, ambition, callousness, unscrupulousness, wielding of power are abhorred.”
Moving toward people A. morbid dependency B. feels weak and helpless C. assumes that others are superior D. martyr E. needy for love to affirm self worth
Moving against people A. in love with own idealized self image - narcissistic B. perfectionistic C. arrogant-vindictive D. needs to be right E. needs to be admired
Moving away from people A. resigned: doesn't try B. rebellious against constraints C. lives as an onlooker D. self-sufficient and independent E. needs privacy: keeps others out of the magic circle of the self
Alienation Development of an idealized self and the tyranny of the should Real self is considered inadequate, unworthy, unlovable
Auxiliary neurotic approaches 1. Blind spots 2. Compartmentalization 3. Rationalization 4. Cynicism 5. Excessive self control 6. Externalization of conflict