1 / 30

Immigration and Urbanization (1865-1914 )

Immigration and Urbanization (1865-1914 ). The New Immigrants. Poor Catholic or Jewish immigrants often moved to urban areas. 1870’s and 1880’s consisted of Northern/Western immigrants. Examples included: Irish, Scottish and Germans.

Download Presentation

Immigration and Urbanization (1865-1914 )

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Immigration and Urbanization (1865-1914)

  2. The New Immigrants • Poor Catholic or Jewish immigrants • often moved to urban • areas • 1870’s and 1880’s consisted of • Northern/Western immigrants. • Examples included: • Irish, Scottish and Germans • 1890’s and early 1900’s included • Immigrants from Italy, Hungary and Greece

  3. Statistics • Between 1870 to 1920 about 20 million Europeans arrived in the United States • Many came to escape religious persecution • Other Europeans left because of the rising population • Between 1800 and 1900 the population of Europe doubled to nearly 400 million • This resulted in land scarcity, competition for labor, etc.

  4. Ways the New Immigrants were different • Skin color • Customs • Religion • Language • Very different from English, German, French

  5. The Push and Pull Factors • Push • Immigrants fled from religious persecution, wars, political revolt, and land reform • Pull • Plentiful land and employment, recruited for work • “Chain immigrants” joining family or friends who have already settled in America

  6. The Immigrant Experience • long voyage • steamships were safer and faster to cross the Atlantic • most traveled in steerage • arrival • New York Harbor: Ellis Island • San Francisco Bay: Angel Island

  7. Ellis Island • Located in New York Harbor • Once the main entry facility for immigrants entering the U.S. • Operated from January 1892 to November 1954 • 12 million immigrants were inspected by 1954 • Before Ellis Island 8 million immigrants had been processed at Castle Garden • 1907 was the peak year for immigration with 1,004,756 immigrants processed • April 17 saw 11,747 immigrants

  8. Ellis Island • Those with health problems or diseases were sent home • About 2% were denied admission to • Reasons such as disease, criminal background, or insanity • Immigrants who were approved spent from 3 to 5 hours at Ellis Island • Ellis Island was sometimes known as "The Island of Tears" • Mass processing of immigrants at Ellis Island ended in 1924 after the Immigration Act of 1924

  9. Vito Andolini arrives at Ellis Island

  10. Angel Island • An island in San Francisco Bay • Provided the same service for those crossing the Pacific as did Ellis Island in the East • 1 million people were processed through Angel island • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 provided tough entry restrictions • Immigrants waited on the island for as long as two years as they attempted to get in • In 1906 a fire destroyed the facility • All processing took place in San Francisco

  11. Angel Island • Tour

  12. Immigrants Assimilate into Society • “melting pot” • some city populations had more than 40% foreign born • most new immigrants stayed in cities, close to industrial jobs in factories • ghettoes • Americanization programs • faced hostility and competition among natives

  13. Overcrowded and Poor Housing • housing conditions deteriorated • Immigrants lived in tenements • crime • poor sanitation • Cholera • Germ Theory

  14. TechnologicalCities • Mass transit • Electric trolley and subway • Elevators • Skyscrapers • Central heating

  15. - Trolleys and subways were developed in order to make transportation more efficient. A train of Brooklyn Union elevated cars circa 1907 belonging to the New York Transit Museum collection.

  16. The New American Culture • Once admitted immigrants faced many challenges: • Finding a place to live • Getting a job • Adapting to a new culture • Understanding a new language • Many immigrants sought out people that were of similar backgrounds, culture, and language • They formed their own communities throughout the nation • Created social clubs, churches, and synagogues as a means of bonding together in a new land

  17. CulturalChanges • conspicuous consumerism • sale methods change • department stores • brand names • mass culture • education increased • training for urban careers • new forms of entertainment

  18. Educate • Schools assimilate immigrants faster than anything else • Upsets some of the older immigrants because the kids want to learn American culture and not their own

  19. GROWING CONSUMERISM • The turn of the century witnessed the beginnings of the shopping center, department and chain stores, and the birth of modern advertising

  20. CATALOGS AND RFD • Montgomery Ward and Sears were two pioneers in catalog sales • By 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mail • In 1896 the Post Office introduced a rural free delivery (RFD) system that brought packages directly to every home

  21. sears ad.pdf

  22. DAWN OF A MASS CULTURE • Many middle class Americans fought off city congestion and dull industrial work by enjoying amusement parks, bicycling, tennis and spectator sports • American leisure was developing into a multi-million dollar industry

  23. THE DEPARTMENT STORE • Marshall Field of Chicago brought the first department store to America • Field’s motto was “Give the lady what she wants” • Field also pioneered the “bargain basement” concept Marshall Fields has been around for almost 150 years

  24. Shopping, Sports and Entertainment - Macy’s opens a nine-story building in New York City. Macy’s, New York City, 1902 Macy’s, New York City, 1964 Macy’s, New York City

  25. CHAIN STORES • In the 1870s, F.W. Woolworth found that if he offered an item at a low price, “the consumer would purchase it on the spur of the moment” • By 1911, the Woolworth chain had 596 stores and sold $1,000,000 per week

  26. - Baseball, football and basketball gain in popularity. The Cuban Giants began life in 1885 as a team that entertained guests at the Argyle Hotel in the resort town of Babylon, Long Island.

  27. - Vaudeville shows became extremely popular. Examples: comedians, song and dance routines, and acrobats

  28. Vaudeville

  29. - Music such as ragtime became extremely popular as well. Example: Scott Joplin – an African American composer Click on Picture

More Related