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The Age of Discovery
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  1. The Age of Discovery Exploring and Colonizing the “New World”

  2. Did Columbus discover America? • Native Americans? • What about the Vikings? • C. A.D. 1000 • What exactly did he find?

  3. Age of Exploration begins during the 1400's • Looking for new trade routes • Where and Why? • Avoiding “middle-men” • Northwest Passage • Conditions that set the stage • Desire • For commerce • Ability • Due to inventions and state sponsorship • Need • Wealth to fund empires, expansion for living space, etc. • Faith • Christianity vs. Islam

  4. The Exploring Kingdoms • Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands, England • Portuguese led the way • Commerce and conversions • Prince Henry the Navigator (15th Century • Key sponsor of early Portuguese exploration of Atlantic & West Africa • 1488 – Bartolomeu Diaz – Cape of Good Hope • 1498 – Vasco de Gama – around cape to India • 1500 – Pedro Alvarez Cabral – South America

  5. Spain • More interested in permanent settlements • Columbus – Oct. 1492 – San Salvador • Didn’t know or believe that he reached a new continent • “New World” term from Vespucci • First on map in 1507 • Vasco Nunez de Balboa - First to sight Pacific (1513) • Ferdinand Magellan - Expedition circumnavigates world 1519-22

  6. Spain • Cortes = New Spain (1519) • Pizarro = Viceroyalty of Peru(1532) • “God, Gold, & Glory” • Encomienda system • Juan Ponce de Leon – 1512-13 & 1521 – Florida • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca – 1536 – Explored Southwest enroute to Mexico from Florida • he & 3 survivors make it to Mexico • Hernando de Soto –(1539-43) explored southeast – finds Miss. River • Francisco Coronado (1541) explores S.W. & finds Grand Canyon

  7. French Exploration • 1534 – Jacques Cartier – St. Lawrence River • 50+ years of failed colonies • 1598-1604 – French fur trading stations in Nova Scotia (Acadia) • 1608- Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain • 1st perm. settlement by French • The Robert Cavelier de LaSalle - Sailed down Mississippi to G. of Mex (1682) • Claimed the entire region for French King Louis XIV - Louisiana

  8. England • John Cabot – 1497 - Newfoundland • Sir Francis Drake – Privateer & explorer • Circumnavigation of World – 1577-80 • Knighted for trip and activities against Spain • Sir Walter Raleigh – 1580s • Roanoke (1585 & 1587) & defeat of Spanish Armada (1588) • Sir Humphrey Gilbert – 1583 – Newfoundland • Newfoundland & Roanoke failed as colonies • Henry Hudson – 4 voyages – 1607-11 • Explored bay and river named for him

  9. Netherlands • 1614 – Dutch joint stock company builds Fort Nassau & establishes colony – New Netherland • 1625 – fort built at mouth of river • Colonial general director Peter Minuit • buys Manhattan Island from Indians - 1626 – new settlement - New Amsterdam

  10. Chart of Explorers • http://www.worldbook.com/features/explorers/html/newworld_charting.html

  11. Columbian Exchange • What is it? • What impact did it have on both sides of the Atlantic? • Did the good outweigh the bad?