The Age of Exploration and Discovery • The "Age of Discovery" from 1450 to 1650 ushered in a new age of world history based on European mastery of ocean travel, increased migration, and economic, political, and cultural expansion.
The Explorers’ Motives • The desire to Christianize the Muslims and pagan peoples played a central role in European expansion. • Limited economic and political opportunity for upper-class men in Spain led to emigration. • Adventure • Government encouragement was also important – for empire • Renaissance curiosity caused people to seek out new worlds. • Spices were another important incentive. • The economic motive--the quest for material profit--was the basic reason for European exploration and expansion.
Technological stimuli to exploration • The development of the cannon aided European expansion. • New sailing and navigational developments, such as the caravel ship, lateen sail, sternpost, the magnetic compass, cartography, and the astrolabe aided the expansion.
Overseas exploration and conquest • The outward expansion of Europe began with the Viking voyages, and then the Crusades, but the presence of the Ottoman Turks in the East frightened the Europeans and forced their attention westward. • Political centralization in Spain, France, and England prepared the way for expansion.
Portugal • The Portuguese, under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator, pushed south from North Africa. • Wanted to find a new route to India and the Far East bypassing the Ottoman Empire • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – treaty between Spain and Portugal • Portugal possessed all lands east of an imaginary line near the Azores, while Spain would receive all lands west of the line. • Significance – the treaty essentially gave the Portuguese sole possession of a possible route to India and the Far East around Africa
Portugal continued • Bartholomeu Dias sailed as far south as the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa) • Vasco da Gama sailed around the southern tip of Africa to India. • The Portuguese gained control of the Indian trade by overpowering Muslim forts in India – Pedro Alvares Cabral. • By 1500 Portugal controlled the flow of oriental products and slaves into Europe.
Spain • Spain will follow the Portuguese lead, but instead of building an empire based on trade, Spain will conquer and colonize. • Hoping to find a western route to India and the Far East, Columbus set sail in 1492 and landed in the Bahamas believing he had reached Asia. (West Indies) • He began the Spanish trend of violence against natives and started colonizing. • If he could not find the spice markets of Asia, he believed he could claim the land for Spain and Christianize the population. • Many people of Columbus’ era believe he had found a new continent. • Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer and cartographer will get the credit.
Spain continued • In 1519 Magellan sailed southwest across the Atlantic for Charles V of Spain in attempt to reach Asia through a southern passage. • He claimed the "Western Isles" for Spain, and proved the earth was round and larger than previously estimated.
Spanish Conquistadors • Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire and founded Mexico City as the capital of New Spain.
Spanish Conquistadors continued • Pizarro crushed the Inca Empire in Peru and opened the Potosí mines, which became the richest silver mines in the New World.
Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadors OfficialEuropeanColony! Missionaries PermanentSettlers
Colonization Expands • The Low Countries, particularly the cities of Antwerp and Amsterdam, had been since medieval times the center of European trade. • The Dutch East India Company became the major organ of Dutch imperialism. • The Dutch West India Company gained control of much of the African and American trade. • France and England made sporadic efforts at exploration and settlement. • Jacques Cartier – discovered the St. Lawrence River • John Cabot led the first of many missions claiming the east coast of North America for the English.
Effects of Exploration • Destruction of native populations and civilizations • Warfare • Disease • Forced labor
Valladolid debate • Bartolomé de lasCasas argued that the American Indians were free men and deserved the same treatment as others • American Indians should be governed like any other people in Spain and have the choice on converting to Catholicism. • Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that American Indians should be punished as they “offend nature” reducing them to slavery. • Defended the right of the Spanish Empire’s right of conquest, colonization, and evangelization
Influx of Gold and Silver Leads to the Price Revolution