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Facets of Interaction: Text

Facets of Interaction: Text

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Facets of Interaction: Text

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  1. Facets of Interaction:Text Chapter 13 Mohamad Eid

  2. Can you read this? I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh, and I awlyas thought slpeling was ipmorantt. Mohamad Eid

  3. Outline • Human Issues Concerning Text • Using Text in Interaction Design • Technical Issues Concerning Text Mohamad Eid

  4. Human Issues Concerning Text • Human Issues Concerning Text • The Reading Process • The Reading Purpose • Paper versus Screens Mohamad Eid

  5. Human Issues Concerning Text • The Reading Process • Saccades: Quick, jerky movements • Fixations: Intermittent pauses on areas of interest • Visual and cognitive processing occurs during fixation but not during saccades. • If text is difficult to comprehend, if it includes long or unfamiliar words, fixations increase in duration Mohamad Eid

  6. Human Issues Concerning Text • The Reading Process Experienced readers recognize word shapes Mohamad Eid

  7. Human Issues Concerning Text • The Reading Process We read extended text passages more quickly in lowercase than uppercase • Lowercase presentation is more common • Lowercase words have more distinctive shapes Mohamad Eid

  8. Human Issues Concerning Text • The Reading Purpose • Continuous process (novel) • Scanning • Reading from screens or paper Mohamad Eid

  9. Human Issues Concerning Text • Paper versus Screens Paper is more flexible than electronic media We often rely on our spatial memory when we search for information Place holders Mohamad Eid

  10. Human Issues Concerning Text • Paper versus Screens The ability to annotate aids comprehension Mohamad Eid

  11. Using Text in Interaction Design • Commentary/Instrumental • Legibility • Readability • Physical Factors Mohamad Eid

  12. Using Text in Interaction Design • Commentary – Text that informs • The most common form is help text • Contextual help provides immediate assistance to users without requiring them to leave the context in which they are working, such as pop-up menus. • Procedural help provides the steps necessary for carrying out a task. • Reference help serves as an online reference book. • Conceptual help provides background information, feature overviews, or processes. Mohamad Eid

  13. Using Text in Interaction Design • Instrumental – Text that does work (Ramey, 1989) • Controls: the control’s function and its label are viewed as one entity • Buttons • Checkboxes • Radio Buttons • Icons • Hyperlinks Mohamad Eid

  14. Using Text in Interaction Design • Hypertext Hypertext links must give unambiguous indications of the target destination • Krug - Don’t Make Me Think(2006) - suggests that what is important is not so much the number of links that a visitor must click but rather the quality of the links Mohamad Eid

  15. Using Text in Interaction Design • Legibility Legibility is an essential first step in the reading process • We must take these environmental conditions into consideration when we are making determinations about font size and foreground/background contrast. Design for the least favorable conditions Mohamad Eid

  16. Using Text in Interaction Design • Legibility • We must also consider age and possible vision impairments Our capacity to perceive details decreases with age Mohamad Eid

  17. Using Text in Interaction Design • Readability • Comprehension is affected by: • Line length • Line spacing • Formatting • Margin width • Scrolling • It is also affected by grammatical issues, such as semantics and syntax Mohamad Eid

  18. Using Text in Interaction Design • Readability Use the terms people will see in the interface Technical terminology should be avoided Word-for-word translations can create confusion Italian street signs Mohamad Eid

  19. Using Text in Interaction Design • Readability – Ambiguous text Avoid noun stacks; they are ambiguous • Linguistic “Escher effects” (Ramey,1989) • Input Mode • Search Results Mohamad Eid

  20. Using Text in Interaction Design • Physical Factors • Font size • Line length • Margin width • Vertical line spacing • Alignment • Contrast • Scrolling versus paging Mohamad Eid

  21. Using Text in Interaction Design • Font size • Factors that affect font size: (Horton, 1994) • Reading Distance—Greater distances require larger text. • Screen Resolution—Smaller text requires greater resolution to keep the characters clear and legible. • Text/Background Contrast—Negative contrast is optimal (black type on a white background). • Visual Acuity of User—Not all users have 20/20 vision. • Type of Reading—Text can be scanned, read word by word, or read character by character Mohamad Eid

  22. Using Text in Interaction Design • Font size • General benchmarkformula for font size, given normal vision and optimal conditions Font Size = 2d(tan(θ/2)) X DPI Mohamad Eid

  23. Using Text in Interaction Design • Line length Line length affects reading performance but not comprehension Lines of greater length are read more quickly People prefer medium line lengths Mohamad Eid

  24. Using Text in Interaction Design • Margin width • Shorter lines—4 inches—with large margins increased reading performance (Youngman and Sharff, 1998) • Maximal use of white space Mohamad Eid

  25. Using Text in Interaction Design • Vertical line spacing • The spacing between lines of text (single spacing, double spacing, etc.) is called leading • Double spacing has been shown to improve reading speed (Kolers, Duchnicky, & Ferguson, 1981) • It might necessitate a smaller font size to increase the amount of visible information per screen Mohamad Eid

  26. Using Text in Interaction Design • Alignment For optimal reading of lengthy texts, right and center alignments should be avoided Text should also be considered a graphical component of a page Mohamad Eid

  27. Using Text in Interaction Design • Contrast Contrast sensitivity decreases significantly with age Mohamad Eid

  28. Using Text in Interaction Design • Color Contrast • Because black and white have the highest contrast the addition of any color will reduce the contrast Luminance contrast is more significant than color contrast Mohamad Eid

  29. Using Text in Interaction Design • Scrolling versus paging Paging Scrolling Consistent link location. Mohamad Eid

  30. Using Text in Interaction Design • Scrolling versus paging Scrolling facilitates maintenance and printing The choice of paging versus scrolling depends on task and layout Mohamad Eid

  31. Ευχαριστώ 谢谢 DMnvwd Dankie go raibh maith agaibh ありがとう متشکرم WAD MAHAD SAN TAHAY GADDA GUEY Asante Urakoze Mohamad Eid