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Interaction Design. Chapter 4. Overview. Process in a nutshell What is ‘interaction design’? Multiple viewpoints Outcomes of interaction design Main phases Understanding users Prototyping Evaluation. What is ‘Interaction Design’. Focus on the interactive elements of the technology?

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Interaction Design


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Interaction Design Chapter 4

    2. Overview • Process in a nutshell • What is ‘interaction design’? • Multiple viewpoints • Outcomes of interaction design • Main phases • Understanding users • Prototyping • Evaluation www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    3. What is ‘Interaction Design’ • Focus on the interactive elements of the technology? • Focus on the human/social processes? • No: • About the relationship of the technology and users in context • “interspaces” not “interfaces” (Winograd, 1997) www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    4. What is ‘Interaction Design’? • Three main steps • Understanding users • Developing prototypes • Evaluation • Highly participative and collaborative • Stakeholders: user community, industrial designers, engineers, software developers… • Highly iterative www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    5. Multiple Viewpoints • Many techniques and tools • Many disciplines • Participation and collaboration www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    6. Many techniques and tools • (see Chapter 4, pg114 for full table) • Role of triangulation www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    7. Many Disciplines • Influences needed to shape effective computer systems have changed over last 50 years (Grudin, 1990) • 1950s computers like newborn infants • Adored by engineers and programmers • 1960s computers like schoolchildren • Main users were programmers: OS/ programming languages improved ‘usability’ • 1970s… computers take their place in the adult world • World full of people with less commitment, time to adapt to computers. ‘User interface’ coined. Human factors, psychologists, cognitive scientists. • 1980s/1990s computers as team players • Organisational use of computers. Sociologists, anthropologists… • Current… From the workplace to everyplace • Industrial design, art, marketing… www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    8. Participation and Collaboration • Workers as cogs-in-a-wheel • Taylorism: “Principles of Scientific Management” • Scandinavian approach • Just, participative, cooperative • Participatory Design methods (Muller, 2001) www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    9. Mobile/Ubicomp PD Method: The Collaboratorium (Bodker & Buur, 2002) • Problem: • Want to envisage ways to improve work practices at wastewater plants • Approach • Participants: engineers, marketers, interaction designers, workers • Three activities: • Design game - board game represented plant, game pieces different sensors/ displays • Movie making - act-out one promising innovation • Critique - show movies, explain rationale www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    10. Nilsson et al, 2000 www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    11. From Interaction Design to Deployment • Blueprint for the new service/ application • Working prototypes, paper designs, rationales, background materials etc • Used by software developers • Beware ‘translation effects’ and compromises by implementation team • Get commitment and input early on • Communicate the design effectively • Remain involved www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    12. Main Phases • Understanding Users • Developing Prototype Designs • Evaluation • Will overview now and focus in during other sessions www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    13. Understanding Users • A priori knowledge from physiological, psychological and sociological work • Field studies • Rise of ‘ethnography’ based approaches • “corporate anthropology is now mainstream…” (Economist, 2004) • Push-to-talk study (Woodruff & Aoki, 2003) • Lived with participants • Eavesdropped on conversations • 50 hrs of recorded, 70,000 word corpus • Direct questioning • Field study easier in non mobile applications - backdrop of action is more stable • Interviews, focus-groups etc can help validate impressions from field, fill in gaps when you can’t observe users etc www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    14. Design Exercise:Design for the Elderly • What distinct attributes should be accommodated when designing for this group? www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    15. Developing Prototype Designs • Design space • Shaping using guidelines • High-level: “Design for truly direct manipulation” • Detailed: “To minimize stylus movement, list commands from top to bottom in order of expected frequency of use” (Microsoft, b) • Managing using design rationale tools etc www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    16. Design Rationale Example • QOC (MacLean et al, 1989) www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    17. Prototyping • Low-fi vs Hi-fi • Low-fi do not resemble final products, quick and cheap to make, evaluate and modify www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    18. Evaluation • User-centred testing • Lab-based • Completion times, accuracy, error rates/ types • Compare with performance measures or alternative designs • Ecological validity www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    19. www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    20. Evaluation • Performance predictive models • Example: KSPC model (Mackezie, 2002). Average number of keystrokes to generate a character. • KSPC= sum(Kw xFw)/ sum(Cw Fw) • Kw is keystrokes for a word • Fw is frequency of word • Cw is characters in word www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    21. Summary • Interaction design involves • Understanding users • Developing prototypes • Evaluation and refinement in iterative, participative fashion • Range of tools and techniques involved • Feeds into larger software development www.wiley.com/go/mobile

    22. Reading • Chapter 4, Mobile Interaction Design www.wiley.com/go/mobile