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The Great Depression and New Deal. By Gary Toon. Thesis . What effects did the great depression and the new deal have on the people all over the world?. Great Depression . It was a slump in North America, Europe, and other places. It lasted from1929 to 1939.

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  • What effects did the great depression and the new deal have on the people all over the world?
great depression
Great Depression
  • It was a slump in North America, Europe, and other places.
  • It lasted from1929 to 1939.
  • It was the longest depression ever experienced by the industrialized western world.


  • Factories were producing more than people could afford to buy.
  • With prices rising faster than salaries, many Americans cut back on their purchases.

The housing and automobile manufacturer were in decline.

  • Car sales dropped by more than one third.
  • A nationwide banking crisis also contributed to the depression.
  • Struggling farmers were finding it Impossible to repay their loans.
  • Many of the small banks that had loaned farmers money also went out of business.

City banks also failed too.

  • After the crash, terrified depositors fled into banks and demanded for their money.
  • More than 5,500 banks closed between 1930 and 1933.
  • Many depositors were left penniless.

Many workers lost their jobs, which they had even less money to make purchases with.

  • With declining sales led to more factories closing and layoffs.
  • Many companies were forced into bankruptcy.
  • Of course, these bankruptcies caused even more layoffs.
the human cost
The human cost
  • The unemployed
    • Unemployment 3-25%
    • Salary and hours were cut back (ex:coal miners $7per day compared to now $1 per day.
  • Growing poverty
    • Jobless people lined up at soup kitchens
    • People tried selling apples or pencils for food.
the human cost1
The human cost
  • Impact on families
    • fathers (no work)
    • Children (health problems-lack of food/medical care)
    • Schools closed (under age of 13 didn’t attend school at all.)
president hoover
President Hoover
  • Government help
    • Reconstruction finance corporation (RFC)-gave money to fund public-works projects ,banks ,insurance companies ,railroads.
    • Hoover encouraged private charities to set up soup kitchens.
    • Financial status still got worse.
president roosevelt
President Roosevelt
  • Background
    • Assistant secretary and vice president in 1920
    • 1932 became president
    • polio (paralyzed in lower body)
  • HOPE
    • Roosevelt pledged “The New Deal”
    • Bank holiday- helped to restore confidence in the banking system.
the new deal
The New Deal
  • Goal: provide jobs for the unemployed
  • Goal: aimed to help industry and tackle rural poverty
  • Goal: prevent another depression
obstacles to the new deal
Obstacles to the New deal
  • Supreme court
    • Several new deal measures to be unconstitutional
  • New deal critics
    • Went to far in regulating businesses and restricting individual freedom.
    • Huey long (democratic senator)
    • Francis Townsend (pensions)
women in the depression
Women in the depression
  • Workplace
    • Little competition from men
    • Trained to become school teachers therefore it was hard to find a job that men had lost.
    • Wages lower than the men
    • Most women eventually lost their jobs
first active lady
First active lady
  • Eleanor Roosevelt (FDR’S wife)
    • Overcame her shyness to begin speaking and traveling on his behalf.
    • Helped transformed the role of the first lady.
    • Urged FDR to appoint more women to government positions.
african americans
African Americans
  • South and north
    • South- cotton prices
    • 1932-more than half AF in the south were unemployed.
    • AF were usually hired last and fired first.
the indian new deal
The Indian new deal
  • 1924
    • Citizenship to native Americans.
    • John collier- commissioner of Indian affairs
dust bowl
Dust bowl
  • Black blizzards
    • Storms that arose so suddenly.
  • Heading west
    • Ruined farm families left their dusty homes to find work.
    • “okies” called this because they came from Oklahoma.
art and media
Art and media
  • John Steinbeck wrote “The Grapes of Wrath” describing the miseries of the dust bowl.
  • Arts
    • Depression was the theme for photographers and painters.
  • Movies and radio
    • Movies dealt realistically with social problems.
    • Grapes of wrath, the public enemy


    • Part of everyday life
    • Entertainment/popular bands and comedians
    • Soap operas
social security
Social Security
  • Old age insurance-guaranteed retired people a pension.
  • Aid to dependent children (ADC)
    • Granted money to help children whose fathers were dead, unemployed or not living with the family.
lasting labor reforms
Lasting labor reforms
  • New laws
    • Wagner act- promised workers rights to organize into unions and prohibit unfair business practices.
    • Also held up collective bargaining-right of a union to negotiate wages and benefits for all of its members.
scorecard on the new deal
Scorecard on the new deal
  • Against the new deal
    • Too much power to the federal government
    • Government programs threaten both individual freedom and free enterprise.
  • For the new deal
    • Eased many of the problems
    • Employed millions of jobless people, ending banking crisis, reformed stock market, etc
    • Restored faith in government.
work cited
Work cited
  • Davidson, James and Stoff, Michael. America History Of Our Nation. New Jersey: Pearson education inc, 2007.
  • lamb, Annette. “The Great Depression." January 1999.January 1999.
  • Bryant, Joyce. “The Great Depression and The New Deal." Yale. April 4th 1998. Yale.
  • Schultz, Stanley. “Liberalism at High Noon: The New Deal." University of Wisconsin. 1998.