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Molecular genetics of bacteria. Emphasis: ways that bacteria differ from eukaryotes DNA structure and function; definitions. DNA replication Transcription and translation Gene regulation and regulation of metabolism Genetic exchange among bacteria. DNA structure. double helix

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molecular genetics of bacteria
Molecular genetics of bacteria
  • Emphasis: ways that bacteria differ from eukaryotes
  • DNA structure and function; definitions.
  • DNA replication
  • Transcription and translation
  • Gene regulation and regulation of metabolism
  • Genetic exchange among bacteria
dna structure
DNA structure
  • double helix
  • Sugar-phosphate backbone
  • A-T, C-G base pairs
  • bases on inside, H- bonded
  • strands anti-parallel
dna source of cellular information
DNA: source of cellular information
  • Information flow: DNARNA protein
    • also DNA DNA
  • Segments of DNA with specific information: genes.
  • Structure of DNA highly related to function
    • Information coded in sequence of bases
    • Complementary strands means that when each is copied, two identical molecules are made.
dna in prokaryotes
DNA in prokaryotes
  • Most bacteria have a single, circular, molecule of DNA
    • Some have more than one, some have linear DNA
  • Packaged w/ histone-like proteins, coiled tightly in loops, attached to membrane
    • 1.6 mm of DNA in a 0.002 mm sized cell.
    • Area of cell containing the DNA: nucleoid.
dna replication
DNA replication
  • Origin of DNA replication: particular site on DNA where copying of the DNA always starts.
    • Replication is bidirectional
    • In each direction, there is a replication fork.
    • Bacterial DNA is circular, so there is one Origin and one terminus
  • Synthesis of each DNA strand is 5’ 3’
  • Replication is semi-conservative
    • New DNA molecules made of one old, one new strand.
dna replication figures
DNA replication figures

Because of requirement for 5’to 3’ synthesis, lagging strand must repeatedly top and start; needs an RNA primer each time.

when you re small you need to be stingy and quick
When you’re small, you need to be stingy and quick
  • Look for many ways that bacteria can save energy and respond quickly to changes in environment.
  • E. coli needs 30 minutes to replicate its DNA, but only 20 minutes to divide into two. How? It gets a head start.
genotype vs phenotype bacterial style
Genotype vs. Phenotype, bacterial style
  • Genotype: the genetic make-up of an organism.
  • Phenotype: the genetic information expressed by the organism.
  • Eukaryotes: difference is often due to masking of recessive alleles by dominant ones
  • In bacteria, which are generally monoploid, phenotype is determined by which genes are being expressed at the present time in response to environmental conditions.
about rna
About RNA

1) DNA is double stranded, but RNA is single stranded.

However, RNA can base-pair with itself to create double stranded regions.

RNA

DNA

tRNA

genetics.gsk.com/graphics/ dna-big.gifhttp://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/th/JG/RNA.jpg

http://www.santafe.edu/images/rna.gif

about rna 2
About RNA-2

2) RNA contains ribose instead of deoxyribose

3) RNA contains uracil instead of thymine.

www.layevangelism.com/.../ deoxyribose.htmhttp://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/notebook/courses/guide/images/uracil.gif

3 kinds of rna
3 kinds of RNA

mRNA: a copy of the gene; is translated to make protein.

tRNA: smallest RNA, does actual decoding.

rRNA: 3 sizes that, along with proteins, make up a ribosome.

tRNA

rRNA

http://www.cu.lu/labext/rcms/cppe/traducti/tjpeg/trna.jpeg;

Tobin and Duschek, Asking About Life; http://www.tokyo-ed.ac.jp/genet/mutation/nort.gif

some enzymes of molecular biology
Some enzymes of molecular biology
  • DNA polymerases
    • Synthesize DNA; operate in 5’→3’ direction only
  • RNA polymerases
    • Synthesize RNA by “copying” DNA
  • DNA ligase
    • Enzyme that connects adjacent 3’-OH and 5’ phosphate
  • Exonuclease
    • Enzyme that cuts bases from the end of a strand
  • Endonuclease
    • Makes internal cuts in a DNA or RNA molecule
    • Restriction endonuclease: cuts at a specific internal sequence.
methylation
Methylation
  • Many organisms add methyl groups (-CH3) to DNA, especially to cytosine.
  • One of several reasons is self-protection from restriction endonucleases
    • Enzymes recognize sequences of nucleotides that occur at random and cut the DNA
    • Viral DNA injected into cytoplasm of bacteria is destroyed, protecting the bacterium.
    • Methylation protects bacterial DNA from cutting by its own restriction enzymes.