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Dave Bloom Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California, Berkeley

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  1. Georeferencing Introduction: Collaboration to Automation Dave Bloom Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California, Berkeley

  2. Georeferencing Collaborations Automation

  3. Georeferencing Collaborations Automation

  4. What is a georeference?

  5. What is a georeference? A numerical description of a place that can be mapped.

  6. What is a georeference? A numerical description of a place that can be mapped. In other words…

  7. What we have:Localities we can read ID Species Locality 1 Lynx rufus Dawson Rd. N Whitehorse 2 Pudu puda cerca de Valdivia 3 Canis lupus 20 mi NW Duluth 4 Felis concolor Pichi Trafúl 5 Lama alpaca near Cuzco 6 Panthera leo San Diego Zoo 7 Sorex lyelli Lyell Canyon, Yosemite 8 Orcinus orca 1 mi W San Juan Island 9 Ursus arctos Bear Flat, Haines Junction

  8. Darwin Core Location Terms • higherGeography • waterbody, island, islandGroup • continent, country, countryCode, stateProvince, county, municipality • locality • minimumElevationInMeters, maximumElevationInMeters, minimumDepthInMeters, maximumDepthInMeters

  9. What we want:Localities we can map

  10. Darwin Core Georeference Terms • decimalLatitude, decimalLongitude • geodeticDatum • coordinateUncertaintyInMeters • georeferencedBy, georeferenceProtocol • georeferenceSources • georeferenceVerificationStatus • georeferenceRemarks • coordinatePrecision • pointRadiusSpatialFit • footprintWKT, footprintSRS, footprintSpatialFit

  11. What is a georeference? A numerical description of a place that can be mapped.

  12. “Davis, Yolo County, California” Coordinates: 38.5463 -121.7425 Horizontal Geodetic Datum: NAD27 “point method”

  13. Data Quality • data have the potential to be used in ways unforeseen when collected. • the value of the data is directly related to the fitness for a variety of uses. • “as data become more accessible many more uses become apparent.” – Chapman 2005 • the GBIF Best Practices (Chapman and Wieczorek 2006) promote data quality and fitness for use.

  14. What is an acceptable georeference? A numerical description of a place that can be mappedand that describes the spatial extent of a locality and its associated uncertainties.

  15. “Davis, Yolo County, California” Coordinates: 38.5486 -121.7542 38.545 -121.7394 Horizontal Geodetic Datum: NAD27 “bounding-box method”

  16. “Davis, Yolo County, California” Coordinates: 38.5468 -121.7469 Horizontal Geodetic Datum: NAD27 Maximum Uncertainty: 8325 m “point-radius method”

  17. What is an ideal georeference? A numerical description of a place that can be mappedand that describes the spatial extent of a locality and its associated uncertaintiesas well as possible.

  18. “Davis, Yolo County, California” “shape method”

  19. “20 mi E Hayfork, California” “probability method”

  20. Method Comparison point easy to produce no data quality bounding-box simple spatial queries difficult quality assessment point-radius easy quality assessment difficult spatial queries shape accurate representation complex, uniform probability accurate representation complex, non-uniform

  21. MaNIS/HerpNET/ORNIS (MHO) Guidelines http://manisnet.org/GeorefGuide.html • uses point-radius representation of georeferences • circle encompasses all sources of uncertainty about the location • methodology formalizes assumptions, algorithms, and documentation standards that promote reproducible results • methods are universally applicable

  22. Darwin Core Georeference Terms • decimalLatitude, decimalLongitude • geodeticDatum • coordinateUncertaintyInMeters • georeferencedBy, georeferenceProtocol • georeferenceSources • georeferenceVerificationStatus • georeferenceRemarks • coordinatePrecision • pointRadiusSpatialFit • footprintWKT, footprintSRS, footprintSpatialFit

  23. Georeferencing Collaborations Automation

  24. Collaborative Distributed Databases for Vertebrates

  25. Collaborations

  26. MaNIS Localities Georeferenced n = 326k localities (1.4M specimens) r = 14 localities/hr (point-radius method) t = 3 yrs (~40 georeferencers)

  27. ORNIS Localities Georeferenced n = 267k localities (1.4M specimens) r = 30 localities/hr (point-radius method) t = 2 yrs (~30 georeferencers)

  28. Scope of the Problem for Natural History Collections ~2.5x109 records

  29. Scope of the Problem for Natural History Collections ~2.5x109 records ~6 records per locality* ~14 localities per hour* * based on the MaNIS Project

  30. Scope of the Problem for Natural History Collections ~2.5x109 records ~6 records per locality* ~14 localities per hour* ~15,500 years * based on the MaNIS Project

  31. Scope of the Problem for Natural History Collections ~2.5x109 records ~6 records per locality* ~14 (30) localities per hour* ~15,500 (7233) years * based on the MaNIS (ORNIS) Project

  32. Georeferencing Collaborations Automation

  33. Automation Combining the Best in Georeferencing GADM GeoLocate MaNIS Georeferencing Calculator

  34. GADM Global Administrative Boundaries:

  35. http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate

  36. Georeferencing Calculator: