ORGANS THAT CONSTITUTE THE URINARY SYSTEM????? Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra
Cardinal signs of Urinary System Disorders • Abnormal constituents of urine • Protein (Albumin), blood/ haemoglobin, cells & tissue casts, pus, glucose, ketone bodies,etc • Abnormal volume of urine • Pain and dysuria • Uraemia
Nephritis • virus - ICH • Bacteria- E.coli, Streptococci, C. renale, Leptospira • Parasites- Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophima renale • Toxins • Autoimmune diseases Etiology
Clinical Signs • Rise in body temperature • Polydypsia and polyuria followed by anuria • Rough and staring body coat • Uraemia and vomiting • Cloudy urine
Clinical Signs (contd.) Blood, haemoglobin, cells and tissue cast, pus in urine Puffy eyelids in glomerular nephritis Stiff gait, arching of back and pain in the lumbar region
Diagnosis • From clinical signs • Urine analysis • Physical Examination: Volume, colour, transparency, odour, foam, specific gravity. • Chemical analysis: pH, proteins, glucose, ketone bodies, bile, blood, etc. • Microscopic analysis: cells, microorganisms, casts, parasites, spermatozoa, sediments, etc.
Treatment • Antibiotics - for 7-10 days • Frusemide @ 4.4 mg/kg b.i.d • Corticosteriods • Vit B complex and proteins • Dextrose normal saline- slow i/v • Low sodium diet and plenty of water
Cystitis • More common in females due to the short urethra. • Interference with the act of micturition- retention of urine enhance bacterial multiplication. • Invasion of bladder lead to shedding of epithelium, erosion and haemorrhage
Etiology • Ascending infection • Descending infection • Bacteria – Corynebacterium renale, E. coli, Pseudomonas, Streptococci, Staphylococci, etc
Clinical findings • Animal dull, depressed, inappetance • Frequent attempt to urinate with small quantity of urine • Dysuria and abdominal pain • Male dogs adopt squatting posture during urination • Urine cloudy containing blood (haematuria) and cells. • Body coat appears rough and starring.
Treatment • Inj. Antibiotics: for 7-10 days • Urine pH • Urine of herbivores- alkaline • Urine of carnivores- acidic • Urinary antiseptics- Hexamine • Urinary acidifier such as sodium acid phosphate • Inj. Corticosteriods
Treatment (contd.) • Inj antihistamines • Inj. Dextrose-i/v • In case of haematuria- • Inj. Vit C or vit K. • Inj Iron • Inj Vit B complex • Give plenty of drinking water.
Obstructive Urolithiasis(urinary calculi or stone) • Obstruction of the urinary tract by urinary calculi. • Common sites: • bladder, kidney, urethra at the ischial arch and the sigmoid flexure.
Etiology • Feeding high concentrates • Pasture containing high oxalate and silica • Hypervitaminosis D • Avitaminosis A • High estrogen intake • Less water intake
Pathogenesis Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stone with Uric Acid Nidus
Common calculi in different species • Dogs: Calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate • Cattle/horse: Calcium/ magnesium/ ammonium phosphate • Pig: Calcium/ magnesium carbonate, magnesium phosphate
Clinical signs • Anorexia and lethargy • Small amount of urine in partial obstruction to anuria in complete obstruction. • Repeated attempts to urinate but in vain. • Abdominal pain • Per rectal examination: distended /flattened UB • Distended ventral abdomen if UB ruptured.
Treatment • Location of the site of obstruction can be done by passing a urinary catheter. • Tab cystone - 3-4 tab daily x 15-20 days • Allopurinol @ 10 mg/kg p.o. t.i.d x 4 wks • Inj. Antibiotics • Surgical intervention- urethrotomy and removal of the calculi.
Drugs safe for use • Penicillin • Ampicillin • Erythromicin • Chloramphenicol
Urinary incontinence Constant dribbling of urine due to loss of voluntary control of micturation. This could be due to: • Bladder paralysis- damage of nerve • Abnormal disposition of urinary organs • Oestrogen and testosterone responsive incontinence • Obstruction of urethra http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZ0o6ubcYEA
Treatment Attempt should be made to control the primary cause Measures to prevent infection Empty distended bladder Neurovitamins to induce contraction power of urinary bladder