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Disorders of Urinary System

Disorders of Urinary System. ORGANS THAT CONSTITUTE THE URINARY SYSTEM?????. Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra. Cardinal signs of Urinary System Disorders. Abnormal constituents of urine Protein (Albumin), blood/ haemoglobin, cells & tissue casts, pus, glucose, ketone bodies,etc

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Disorders of Urinary System

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  1. Disorders of Urinary System

  2. ORGANS THAT CONSTITUTE THE URINARY SYSTEM????? Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra

  3. Cardinal signs of Urinary System Disorders • Abnormal constituents of urine • Protein (Albumin), blood/ haemoglobin, cells & tissue casts, pus, glucose, ketone bodies,etc • Abnormal volume of urine • Pain and dysuria • Uraemia

  4. Nephritis • virus - ICH • Bacteria- E.coli, Streptococci, C. renale, Leptospira • Parasites- Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophima renale • Toxins • Autoimmune diseases Etiology

  5. Clinical Signs • Rise in body temperature • Polydypsia and polyuria followed by anuria • Rough and staring body coat • Uraemia and vomiting • Cloudy urine

  6. Clinical Signs (contd.) Blood, haemoglobin, cells and tissue cast, pus in urine Puffy eyelids in glomerular nephritis Stiff gait, arching of back and pain in the lumbar region

  7. Diagnosis • From clinical signs • Urine analysis • Physical Examination: Volume, colour, transparency, odour, foam, specific gravity. • Chemical analysis: pH, proteins, glucose, ketone bodies, bile, blood, etc. • Microscopic analysis: cells, microorganisms, casts, parasites, spermatozoa, sediments, etc.

  8. Treatment • Antibiotics - for 7-10 days • Frusemide @ 4.4 mg/kg b.i.d • Corticosteriods • Vit B complex and proteins • Dextrose normal saline- slow i/v • Low sodium diet and plenty of water

  9. Contraindications

  10. Cystitis • More common in females due to the short urethra. • Interference with the act of micturition- retention of urine enhance bacterial multiplication. • Invasion of bladder lead to shedding of epithelium, erosion and haemorrhage

  11. Etiology • Ascending infection • Descending infection • Bacteria – Corynebacterium renale, E. coli, Pseudomonas, Streptococci, Staphylococci, etc

  12. Clinical findings • Animal dull, depressed, inappetance • Frequent attempt to urinate with small quantity of urine • Dysuria and abdominal pain • Male dogs adopt squatting posture during urination • Urine cloudy containing blood (haematuria) and cells. • Body coat appears rough and starring.

  13. Treatment • Inj. Antibiotics: for 7-10 days • Urine pH • Urine of herbivores- alkaline • Urine of carnivores- acidic • Urinary antiseptics- Hexamine • Urinary acidifier such as sodium acid phosphate • Inj. Corticosteriods

  14. Treatment (contd.) • Inj antihistamines • Inj. Dextrose-i/v • In case of haematuria- • Inj. Vit C or vit K. • Inj Iron • Inj Vit B complex • Give plenty of drinking water.

  15. Drugs that work well in specific pH

  16. Obstructive Urolithiasis(urinary calculi or stone) • Obstruction of the urinary tract by urinary calculi. • Common sites: • bladder, kidney, urethra at the ischial arch and the sigmoid flexure.

  17. Urethra in domestic animals

  18. Etiology • Feeding high concentrates • Pasture containing high oxalate and silica • Hypervitaminosis D • Avitaminosis A • High estrogen intake • Less water intake

  19. Pathogenesis Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stone with Uric Acid Nidus

  20. Common calculi in different species • Dogs: Calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate • Cattle/horse: Calcium/ magnesium/ ammonium phosphate • Pig: Calcium/ magnesium carbonate, magnesium phosphate

  21. Clinical signs • Anorexia and lethargy • Small amount of urine in partial obstruction to anuria in complete obstruction. • Repeated attempts to urinate but in vain. • Abdominal pain • Per rectal examination: distended /flattened UB • Distended ventral abdomen if UB ruptured.

  22. Treatment • Location of the site of obstruction can be done by passing a urinary catheter. • Tab cystone - 3-4 tab daily x 15-20 days • Allopurinol @ 10 mg/kg p.o. t.i.d x 4 wks • Inj. Antibiotics • Surgical intervention- urethrotomy and removal of the calculi.

  23. Drugs safe for use • Penicillin • Ampicillin • Erythromicin • Chloramphenicol

  24. Urinary incontinence Constant dribbling of urine due to loss of voluntary control of micturation. This could be due to: • Bladder paralysis- damage of nerve • Abnormal disposition of urinary organs • Oestrogen and testosterone responsive incontinence • Obstruction of urethra http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZ0o6ubcYEA

  25. Treatment Attempt should be made to control the primary cause Measures to prevent infection Empty distended bladder Neurovitamins to induce contraction power of urinary bladder

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