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Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

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Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

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  1. Computer Filename: pkvsek.ppt Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Hugh B. Fackrell

  2. Presentation Outline • Major Groups of Organisms • Classification of Organisms • Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

  3. Background Terms & Concepts • Proteins • Membranes (membr.ppt) • Formation of lipid bilayers (membr.ppt) • Prokaryotes • Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes • Evolution of eukaryotes

  4. Basic unit of all organisms in the various kingdoms Cell membrane Protoplasm Genetic information DNA & RNA Cell

  5. Major Groups of Organisms • Plants • Animals • Fungi • Protista • Prokaryotes • Viruses

  6. Major Groups of Organisms • Plants: • photosynthetic, inorganic food • Animals: • non photosynthetic, organic food

  7. 1 of 2 Major Groups of Organisms • Fungi: • non photosynthetic, organic food, • microscopic, filamentous • Subgroups • Yeasts • True fungi • molds,rusts, smuts, mushrooms

  8. Protista • Microscopic eukaryotes • Food organic or inorganic • Some photosynthetic • Examples • Slime molds • Algae • Protozoa

  9. Prokaryotes • Characteristics • No nucleus or nuclear membrane • Microscopic • Food organic or inorganic • Some photosynthetic • Bacteria • Cyanobacteria • Eubacteria • Archaea (archaebacteria)

  10. Viruses • Non cellular • Reproduce only in living host cells • Food from living cells • By infection only • ONE nucleic acid • DNA viruses • RNA viruses • Protective protein coat

  11. Viroids • Special subgroup of viruses that lack the protective protein coat

  12. Prions • Mad cow disease, scrapie • “Infectious” proteins • genetically coded by animal • 2 configurations of same protein • One form harmless • Second form pathologic • Pathological configuration acts as a template to convert harmless form

  13. Classification of Organisms • From Fossil Record & Morphology • Five Kingdoms- plants, animals,fungi , protistia, prokaryotes • Prokaryotes - Eubacteria, Archeobacteria • From Cellular organization • Three kingdoms- Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Eukaryotes

  14. Empires • Level of organization above the kingdom level • Archaea(formerly Archaebacteria) • Bacteria ( formerly Eubacteria) • Eucarya (plants, animals, protista, fungi)

  15. Prokaryotes No nuclear membrane DNA in ONE molecule free in cytoplasm No membrane bound organelles No cytoskeleton Eukaryotes Nuclear membrane DNA organized in several molecules (chromosomes) Many different membrane bound organelles Cytoskeleton Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

  16. Prokaryotes (details) • Size:1-10 m • Flagella: simple, 2 proteins • Capsule: extracellular polymer • Cell wall: usual, complex • Plasma membrane: no carbohydrates or sterols • Ribosomes: small(70S) • Cell division: binary fission

  17. Eukaryotes (details) • Size:10-100 m • Flagella: Complex, many microtublules • Capsule: none • Cell wall: if present chemically simple • Plasma membrane:Sterols & carbohydrates • Ribosomes: large (80S) in cytoplasm • small(70S) in organelles • Cell division: mitosis

  18. Summary • Simple cells • Single circular chromosome • 1-2 microns in size • few internal compartments or organelles • Complex Cell Wall common • Cell wall unique