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Anatomy of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotic Cell Structure Cell size, shapes, and arrangements Parts of a Prokaryotic Cell Glycocalyx: slime layer or capsule Fimbriae and sex pilus, flagella Cell wall and plasma membrane (g+, g-, mycobacteria, archaebacteria)

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anatomy of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Anatomy of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cell size, shapes, and arrangements
    • Parts of a Prokaryotic Cell
      • Glycocalyx: slime layer or capsule
      • Fimbriae and sex pilus, flagella
      • Cell wall and plasma membrane (g+, g-, mycobacteria, archaebacteria)
      • Plasma membrane and material transport; osmosis
      • Nuclear Area (Nucleoid), Plasmids, Ribosomes
      • Endospores
  • Eukaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cytoplasm (open streets and city squares)
    • Nucleus (library)
    • Ribosomes (construction factories)
    • Internal membrane System: ER, Golgi, Lysosomes
    • Mitochondria (power station)
    • Chloroplasts (food synthesis factory)
    • Cytoskeleton (pulling ropes,& lumber)
osmosis and water balance in cells
Osmosis and Water Balance in Cells

Osmosis is the passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

  • Water moves across a membrane from high concentration (high purity) to low concentration (low purity)
slide5

Osmosis: Water Moving From High Purity to Low Purity

(outside)

(outside)

Bacterial growth media is made to be isotonic with cells ( ~ 1% dissolved substances)

Figure 4.18c-e

anatomy of prokaryotes and eukaryotes1
Anatomy of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cell size, shapes, and arrangements
    • Parts of a Prokaryotic Cell
      • Glycocalyx: slime layer or capsule
      • Fimbriae and sex pilus, flagella
      • Cell wall and plasma membrane (g+, g-, mycobacteria, archaebacteria)
      • Plasma membrane and material transport; osmosis
      • Nuclear Area (Nucleoid), Plasmids, Ribosomes
      • Endospores, Cytoskeleton
  • Eukaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cytoplasm (open streets and city squares)
    • Nucleus (library)
    • Ribosomes (construction factories)
    • Internal membrane System: ER, Golgi, Lysosomes
    • Mitochondria (power station)
    • Chloroplasts (food synthesis factory)
    • Cytoskeleton (pulling ropes,& lumber)
inclusions and other membranes
Inclusions and Other Membranes

Inclusion

Nucleoid (Nuclear Area)

Plasmid

Figure 4.6a

ribosomes
Ribosomes

Ribosomes from eukaryotes are larger and constructed differently

Figure 4.19

intracellular membranes and inclusions
Intracellular Membranes and Inclusions
  • Metachromatic granules (phosophate) Polysaccharide granules
  • Lipid inclusions
  • Sulfur granules
  • Carboxysomes
  • Thylakoids/photsynthetic membranes
  • Gas vacuoles
  • Magnetosomes
slide10

Endospore Formation

Endospores are heat-resistant, UV resistant, and chemically resistant

Figure 4.21a

bacterial cell walls include scaffolding proteins cytoskeleton
Bacterial Cell Walls Include Scaffolding Proteins (Cytoskeleton)

Proteins similar to actin in eukaryotes help in expanding the peptidoglycan during bacterial growth by acting as scaffolds

anatomy of prokaryotes and eukaryotes ii
Anatomy of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes II
  • Prokaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cell size, shapes, and arrangements
    • Parts of a Prokaryotic Cell
      • Glycocalyx: slime layer or capsule
      • Fimbriae and sex pilus, flagella
      • Cell wall and plasma membrane (g+, g-, mycobacteria, archaebacteria)
      • Plasma membrane and material transport; osmosis
      • Nuclear Area (Nucleoid), Plasmids, Ribosomes
      • Endospores, Cytoskeleton
  • Eukaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cytoplasm (open streets and city squares)
    • Nucleus (library)
    • Ribosomes (construction factories)
    • Internal membrane System: ER, Golgi, Lysosomes (Construction & shipping)
    • Mitochondria (power station)
    • Chloroplasts (food synthesis factory)
    • Cytoskeleton (pulling ropes,& lumber)
anatomy of prokaryotes and eukaryotes2
Anatomy of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cell size, shapes, and arrangements
    • Parts of a Prokaryotic Cell
      • Glycocalyx: slime layer or capsule
      • Fimbriae and sex pilus, flagella
      • Cell wall and plasma membrane (g+, g-, mycobacteria, archaebacteria)
      • Plasma membrane and material transport; osmosis
      • Nuclear Area (Nucleoid), Plasmids, Ribosomes
      • Endospores
  • Eukaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cytoplasm (open streets and city squares)
    • Nucleus (library)
    • Ribosomes (construction factories)
    • Internal membrane System: ER, Golgi, Lysosomes
    • Mitochondria (power station)
    • Chloroplasts (food synthesis factory)
    • Cytoskeleton (pulling ropes,& lumber)