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Differentiation Beginning the Journey . Theresa Hinkle NMSA 2009. Today’s Agenda. Differentiation What is it? Why should we implement it? What are some strategies I can implement to begin the journey? What is the role of assessment in differentiation?. What is Differentiation?.

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today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • Differentiation
    • What is it?
    • Why should we implement it?
    • What are some strategies I can implement to begin the journey?
    • What is the role of assessment in differentiation?
what is differentiation
What is Differentiation?
  • A teacher’s response to learner needs
  • The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferences
  • Instruction that appeals to students’ differences
differentiation is but isn t
Differentiation is… but isn’t…

Essential elements

-choice

-addresses student differences

-modification of process, product or content

-based on student’s readiness, interests, and learning profile

Does not include

-emphasis on “covering” the curriculum

-assessment just to see “who got it”

-domination by whole class activity

-mostly single option assignments

Examples

-compacting

-learning contracts

-tiered assignment

-

Non-examples

-giving “extra” work to some

-grading some “harder” than others

-giving more difficult work to some without adjusting instruction

slide5
Thebiggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way.

~ Howard Gardner

why should we differentiate
Why should we differentiate?
  • All students learn differently.
  • One size doesn’t fit all.
  • Students learn best when they are actively engaged, allowed choice, and involved in the decision making process.
  • To learn, students must experience appropriate levels of challenge.
  • “Instruction begins where the students are, not at the front of the curriculum guide.”

How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Carol Ann Tomlinson.

How the Brain Learns. C.A. Tomlinson and M. Layne Kalbfleisch

rapid robin
RAPID ROBIN

The “Dreaded Early Finisher”

i m not finished freddie
“I’m Not Finished” Freddie

“It takes him

an hour-and-a-half

to watch 60 Minutes.”

slide10
Teachers Can Differentiate

Content

Process

Product

According to Students’

Interest

Learning

Profile

Readiness

Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)

bloom s taxonomy revised
Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

Original Revised

Knowledge Remembering

Comprehension Understanding

Application Applying

Analysis Analyzing

Synthesis Evaluating

Evaluation Creating

differentiating process and product
Differentiating Process and Product
  • Learning contracts
  • Tiered assignments
  • RAFT writing assignments
  • Choice boards
  • Interactive journals and notebooks
  • Compacting
  • Different levels of questioning
the equalizer
The “Equalizer”

5.Smaller Leap

1.Foundational

Transformational

Greater Leap

6.More Structured

More Open

2.Concrete

Abstract

7.Clearly Defined Problems

Fuzzy Problems

3.Simple

Complex

8.Less Independence

Greater Independence

4.Fewer Facets

Multi-facets

9.Slower

Quicker

table talk
Table Talk

What are you already doing to differentiate instruction in your classroom?

slide15
Ongoing Assessment:

The Key to A

Differentiated Classroom

balanced assessment system
Balanced Assessment System

“To maximize student success, assessment must be seen as an instructional tool for use while learning is occurring, and as an accountability tool to determine if learning has occurred.

Because both purposes are important, they must be in balance.”

From Balanced Assessment: The Key to Accountability and Improved Student Learning, NEA (2003)

experts tell us
Experts tell us…

“Assessment should promote learning, not simply measure it.”

Jay McTighe

two views of assessment
Two Views of Assessment --

Assessment is for:

Gate keeping

Judging

Right Answer

Control

Comparison to others

Use with single activities

Assessment is for:

Nurturing

Guiding

Self-Reflection

Information

Comparison to standard

Use over multiple activities

slide19
“Assessment should always have

more to do with helping students

grow than with cataloging their

mistakes.”

Carol Tomlinson

slide20
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED?

READINESS

LEARNING

PROFILE

INTEREST

  • Areas of Strength
  • and Weakness
  • Work Preferences
  • Self Awareness
  • Interest Surveys
  • Interest Centers
  • Self-Selection

Content

Knowledge

Skills

Concepts

slide21
When Do You Assess?

Most teachers assess students at the

end of an instructional unit or sequence.

When assessment and instruction are

interwoven, both the students and the

teacher benefit. The next slide suggests

a diagnostic continuum for

ongoing assessment.

on going assessment a diagnostic continuum
On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum

Preassessment

(Finding Out)

Formative Assessment

(Keeping Track & Checking -up)

Summative Assessment

(Making sure)

slide23
Formative Assessment

(Keeping Track & Checking -up)

Summative Assessment

(Making sure)

Preassessment

(Finding Out)

On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum

Feedback and Goal Setting

Pre-test

Inventory

KWL

Checklist

Observation

Self-evaluation

Questioning

Conference Exit Card

Peer evaluation Portfolio Check

Quiz

Observation Journal Entry

Talkaround Self-evaluation

Questioning

Unit Test

Performance Task

Product/Exhibit

Demonstration

Portfolio Review

slide24
ONGOING ASSESSMENT

Some teachers

talk about---

LEARNING

Some teachers

talk about---

GRADES

VS.

  • Can these two coexist peacefully?
  • Should one receive emphasis over the other?
preassessment is
Preassessment Is...
  • Any method, strategy or process used to determine a
  • student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to
  • plan for appropriate instruction.
  • Preassessment:
    • provides data that can determine options for students to
    • to take in information, construct meaning, and to
    • demonstrate understanding of new information
    • helps teachers anticipate differences before planning
    • challenging and respectful learning experiences
    • allows teachers to meet students where they are
pre assessment
Pre-assessment

Teacher prepared pre-test

KWL Charts /Graphic Organizers

Writing Prompts/Samples

Guess Box

Student demonstrations and discussions

Student products and work samples

Show of hands/EPR Every Pupil Response

Standardized Tests Data

Teacher observation/Checklist

formative assessment is
Formative Assessment Is...
  • A process of accumulating information about a student’s
  • progress to help make instructional decisions that will
  • improve his/her understandings and achievement levels.
  • Formative Assessment:
    • depicts student’s life as a learner
    • used to make instructional adjustments
    • alerts the teacher about student misconceptions
    • “early warning signal”
    • allows students to build on previous experiences
    • provides regular feedback
    • provides evidence of progress
    • aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes
assessment during learning
Assessment During Learning
  • Thumbs Up
  • Fist of Five
  • 3-2-1 Cards
  • Dry erase slates
  • Portfolios
  • Artistic response
  • Oral presentations
  • Writings –RAFT
  • Interactive Notebooks
experts tell us1
Experts tell us…

“Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended outcomes.”

CCSSO FAST SCASS

slide30
“Assessment is today’s means of

understanding how to modify

tomorrow’s instruction.”

Carol Tomlinson

summative assessment is
Summative Assessment Is...
  • A means to determine a student’s mastery and
  • understanding of information, skills, concepts, or
  • processes.
  • Summative Assessment:
    • should reflect formative assessments that precede it
    • should match material taught
    • may determine student’s exit achievement
    • may be tied to a final decision, grade or report
    • should align with instructional/curricular outcomes
    • may be a form of alternative assessment
understanding the target
Understanding the Target
  • What knowledge will students need to demonstrate the intended learning?
  • What patterns of reasoning will they need to master?
  • What skills are required, if any?
  • What product development capabilities must they acquire, if any?
learning targets
Learning Targets

Knowledge = the facts and concepts we want student to know

Reasoning = student use what they know to reason and solve problems

Skills = students use their knowledge and reasoning to act skillfully

Products = students use their knowledge, reasoning, and skills to create a concrete product

Dispositions = students’ attitudes about school and learning.

learning targets for today
Learning Targets for Today
  • Knowledge
  • Reasoning
  • Skills
  • Products
  • Dispositions
assessment practices for standards based instruction
Assessment Practices for Standards-based Instruction

From

  • Products for teacher / grading
  • No student work displayed
  • Identical, imitative products

To

  • Products for real events / audience
  • High quality / all students work displayed
  • Varied and original products
assessment practices for standards based instruction1
Assessment Practices for Standards-based Instruction

From

  • Feedback = scores or grades
  • Seen / scored only by teacher
  • Teacher grade book
  • Standards set during grading

To

  • Substantive, varied, formative feedback
  • Public displays and performances
  • Student-maintained portfolios, assessments
  • Standards co-developed with students
assessment practices for standards based instruction2
Assessment Practices for Standards-based Instruction

From

  • Feedback = scores or grades
  • Seen / scored only by teacher
  • Teacher grade book
  • Standards set during grading

To

  • Substantive, varied, formative feedback
  • Public displays and performances
  • Student-maintained portfolios, assessments
  • Standards co-developed with students
principles of assessment in differentiated classroom
Principles of Assessment in Differentiated Classroom
  • Assessment drives instruction. Assessment provides information to help the teacher plan next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.
  • Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends.
  • Assessment is varied, frequent, and relevant to the learner
anchor activities
Anchor Activities
  • Anchor activitiesare ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit, a grading period or longer.
anchor activities1
Anchor Activities:

Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when they are “stumped”.

Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction.

Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individuals.

anchor activities2
ANCHOR ACTIVITIES

Can be

  • used in any subject
  • whole class assignments
  • small group or individual assignments
  • tiered to meet the needs of different readiness levels
  • interdisciplinary for use across content areas or teams
anchor activities3
ANCHOR ACTIVITIES

Work best:

  • when expectations are clear and the tasks are taught and practiced prior to use.
  • when students are held accountable for on task behavior and/or task completion.
slide45
Planning for Anchor Activities

Subject/Content Area:

Name and description of anchor activity:

How will activity be introduced to students?

How will the activity be managed and monitored?

- Points - Percentage of Final Grade

- Rubric - Portfolio Check

- Checklist - Teacher/Student Conference

- Random Check - Peer Review

- On Task Behaviors - Other _______________

using anchor activities to create groups
Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups

1

Teach the whole class to work independently and

quietly on the anchor activity.

2

Flip-Flop

Half the class works

on anchor activity.

Other half works on

a different activity.

3

1/3 works with

teacher---direct

instruction.

1/3 works on

anchor activity.

1/3 works on a

different activity.

some anchor activities
Some Anchor Activities
  • “Brain Busters”
  • Learning Packets
  • Activity Box
  • Learning/Interest Centers
  • Vocabulary Work
  • Accelerated Reader
  • Investigations
  • Test Practice Activities
  • Magazine Articles with Generic Questions or Activities
  • Listening Stations
  • Research Questions or Projects
  • Commercial Kits and Materials
  • Journals or Learning Logs
  • Silent Reading (Content Related?)
tiered instruction

TIERED INSTRUCTION

A Different Spin on an Old Idea

SOURCE: based on work by Carol Ann Tomlinson

what is tiered instruction
What is Tiered Instruction?

By keeping the focus of the

activity the same, but

providing routes of access at

varying degrees of difficulty,

the teacher maximizes the

likelihood that:

1) each student comes away with

pivotal skills & understandings

2) each student is appropriately

challenged

Teachers use tiered activities so that all students focus on

essential understandings and skills but at different levelsof complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness.

what can be tiered
WHAT CAN BE TIERED?
  • ASSIGNMENTS
  • ACTIVITIES
  • CENTERS & STATIONS
  • LEARNING CONTRACTS
  • ASSESSMENTS
  • MATERIALS
  • EXPERIMENTS
  • WRITING PROMPTS
  • HOMEWORK
creating multiple paths for learning
Creating Multiple Paths For Learning

Key Concept

or

Understanding

Understand

The

Concept

Struggling

With The

Concept

Some

Understanding

READINESS LEVELS

Reaching Back

Reaching Ahead

slide52
IDENTIFY OUTCOMES

WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE TO DO?

THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS

PRE-ASSESS READINESS, INTEREST, OR LEARNING PROFILE

INITIATING ACTIVITIES

USE AS COMMON EXPERIENCE FOR WHOLE CLASS

GROUP 1

TASK

GROUP 2

TASK

GROUP 3

TASK

when tiering
When Tiering:

Adjust---

  • Level of Complexity
  • Amount of Structure
  • Materials
  • Time/Pace
  • Number of Steps
  • Form of Expression
  • Level of Dependence
slide54
Planning Tiered Assignments

Concept to be Understood

OR

Skill to be Mastered

Create on-level task first then adjust up and down.

Below-Level

Task

On-Level

Task

Above-Level

Task

“Adjusting the

Task”

the teacher s challenge
THE TEACHER’S CHALLENGE

Developing--

“Respectful Activities”

  • Interesting
  • Engaging
  • Challenging
tiered assignments
Tiered Assignments
  • Enable all students focus on essential understandings and skills but at different levels of
    • complexity
    • abstractness
    • open-endedness
  • Maximize the likelihood that
    • Each student is successful
    • Each student is appropriately

challenged

curriculum compacting
Curriculum Compacting
  • High-ability or high-achieving students are frequently asked to participate in practice exercises or instruction that they have previously mastered.
  • Curriculum compacting is a process to "streamline" and modify the grade-level curriculum by eliminating material that students have previously learned.
quick guide to compacting
Quick guide to compacting
  • Define the goals and objectives of a particular unit/segment.
  • Pre-assessment
  • Document mastery most of learning outcomes. (scores, work samples, etc.)
  • Providing replacement options that enable a more challenging and productive use of the student's time
choice the great motivator
Choice…the great motivator
  • Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and learning profiles. !
  • Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOUare still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos –NO taking the easy way out!) !
  • Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems, spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group arrangement, ETC . . .
menu planner
Menu Planner

Menu for: ______________________ Due: _____________ All items in the main dish and the specific number of side dishes must be complete by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may decide to do some of the desserts items, as well.

Main Dishes (complete all)

Side Dishes (Select ____ )

Desserts (Optional)

choice boards
Choice Boards
  • Variety of formats
    • Tic-tac-toe
    • Wheel
    • Menu
  • May be organized based on multiple intelligences, Bloom’s taxonomy, etc.
  • May include individual and group work
  • May be generic
  • May be used as anchor activity
choice boards1
Choice Boards
  • Variety of formats
    • Tic-tac-toe
    • Wheel
    • Menu
  • May be organized based on multiple intelligences, Bloom’s taxonomy, etc.
  • May include individual and group work
  • May be generic
  • May be used as anchor activity
choice boards2
Choice Boards
  • Tic Tac Toe
choice boards3
Choice Boards

Outer red band=1-2 choices

to be completed in whole

group instruction

Blue band-=3-4 choices

to be completed

independently

Bulls eye=final assessment

White band=3-4 choices

to be completed in small

groups

Inner white band=

choices to be

completed as EC or

enrichment

rafts writing assignments
RAFTS Writing Assignments
  • Role- Who are you as the writer?
  • Audience- To whom/for whom are you writing?
  • Format- What form will the writing take?
  • Topic- What's the subject or the point of this piece?
  • Strong verb-What is your purpose…are you pleading, persuading, considering
rafts
RAFTS

Role-Kunta Kinte

Audience-your mother

Format-letter

Topic-your capture by slavers

Strong verb-plead for her forgiveness

Role-A heart

Audience-your body

Format-cheer

Topic-getting in shape

Strong verb-persuade

slide67
Student Learning Contracts

An agreement

between

teacher and

student(s).

learning contracts are
Learning Contracts Are:

Written agreementsbetween teachers and students that clearly outline:

  • what students will learn
  • how they will learn it
  • the time period for the learning experience
  • how they will be evaluated
benefits of contracts
Benefits of Contracts
  • Require students to think about their learning
  • May assist students in understanding how to manage time
  • Can include choice
  • May be used to support students with special needs
  • Can include student in curriculum planning
  • Help the teacher manage group work, individual projects or investigations, learning centers or curriculum compacting
types of contracts
Types of Contracts
  • Structured
  • Partial Structured
  • Mutually Structured
  • Unstructured
contract components
Contract Components
  • OUTCOMES
  • RESOURCES
  • LEARNING ALTERNATIVES
  • REPORTING ALTERNATIVES & ASSESSMENT
contract components1
Contract Components

1. Outcome(s)- specify what is to be accomplished, the conditionsunder which learning will be demonstrated, and the level of proficiency required to meet the outcome.

2. Resources- including print, media, and human

contract components2
Contract Components

3. Learning Alternatives- include reading, writing, viewing, creating, interviewing, and other activities the student experiences to accomplish the outcome.

4. Reporting Alternatives and Assessment- should provide evidence as to whether the outcomes have been accomplished. Conferences, tests, projects, presentations, real world products, portfolios of work are examples of reporting alternatives.

contract do s and don ts
Contract Do’s and Don’ts
  • explain the role & function of contracts
  • start small (1 or 2 day) contracts
  • negotiate contracts with students whenever possible
  • help set realistic deadlines
  • renegotiate the contract if it isn’t working
  • solicit student feedback on process
  • gradually involve students in contract development
  • expect all students to use contracts effectively at the beginning
  • expect all students to like contracts.
  • assume contracts can take the place of regular instruction
  • use contracts without a good management system
learning contract
Learning Contract

To demonstrate what I have learned about _____________________________ I will Write a report Make a movie Put on a demonstration Create a graphic organizer or diagram Set up an experiment Develop a computer presentation Build a model Design a mural Write a song Other ____________________

This will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because _________________________________________________________________To do this project, I will need help with __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I will need the following resources __________________________________

My action plan is _______________________________________________

The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _____

My project will be completed by this date: ______________________________

Student signature: ______________________________________ Date _____

Teacher signature: ______________________________________ Date _______

slide76
Thoughts about Learning Contracts

Contracts provide efficient means of prescribing for students, based on assessed needs, strengths, or interests.

Contracts are usually negotiated between the teacher and the student and sometimes the parent.

Both the teacher and the student share responsibility for the

completion of the terms of the contract.

A contract may require a student to use certain resources or to contact other people in the school or in the community.

A contract may have certain prerequisites as conditions that the

student has to meet before beginning a study or investigation.

slide78
Group

Assignments

Bookshelf

Teacher Station 1

Teacher Station 2

Schedule

Inboxes

in the differentiated classroom
IN THE DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM
  • Teachers and students accept and respect one another’s similarities and differences
  • Assessment is an on-going activity that guides instruction. Learning plans are made and adjusted based on assessment data.
in the differentiated classroom1
IN THE DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM
  • Students have a voice in setting class and individual goals
  • Students work in a variety of group configurations as well as independently.
  • Flexible grouping is evident.
in the differentiated classroom2
IN THE DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM
  • Time is used flexibly since pacing is based on student needs
  • All students participate in respectful work--work that is challenging, meaningful, interesting, and engaging.

.

in the differentiated classroom3
IN THE DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM
  • The teacher is primarily a coordinator of time, space, and activities rather than a provider of information. The aim is to help students become self-reliant learners.
  • Students are assessed in multiple ways, and each student's progress is measured at least in part from where that student begins
in your differentiated classroom
In YOUR Differentiated Classroom…
  • What are the needs of your students?
  • Which strategy appeals to you the most?
  • Can you collaborate with colleagues?
  • What worries or concerns do you have about implementation?
implementing differentiated instruction in your district or school
Implementing Differentiated Instruction in your District or School
  • Start with Committed Staff
  • Look for Existing Resources/Infrastructure
  • Start with One or Two Strategies
  • Try it and Be Willing to Alter and Extend
where do i go from here some tips for implementing differentiation in your classroom
Where do I Go From Here?Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom
  • Start slowly
  • Organize your classroom space
  • Create a culture that supports

differentiation including

students and parents

  • Analyze standards and current

practice

investing students
Investing Students
  • Student “buy-in”
  • Provide choice
  • Allow students to assess their own mastery
  • Adjust physical environment
  • Increase student responsibility
where do i go from here some tips for implementing differentiation in your classroom1
Where do I Go From Here?Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom
  • Devise a plan to get to know students and maintain records
    • Student files
    • Student portfolios
    • Use clipboard
  • Sharpen assessments (maybe common?)
  • Use task cards, a tape recorder, or an overhead for directions
  • Have systems for student questions
  • Vary instructional strategies, grouping, learning preferences, and activities
implementing differentiated instruction additional considerations
Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Additional Considerations
  • Administrative Support to Teachers
  • Professional Development
  • Adequate Planning Time
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