Beginning the Journey of Differentiated Instruction Maria Molina Educational Consultant
Definition Information Welcome!Please find a place to sit and then do the following anchor activity.Complete the Frayer Diagram using key words and phrases. Differentiation Examples Non-Examples
Make a date! 12:00 3:00 6:00 9:00
Community Agreements • Participate Actively • Ask Questions • Learn by Doing • Set your leaning into action!
At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.
It’s teaching so that “typical” students; students with disabilities; students who are gifted; and students from a range of cultural, ethnic, and language groups can learn together, well. Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching. Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.
It’s making sure each student learns what he or she should learn by establishing clear goals, assessing persistently to see where each student is relative to the goals, and adjusting instruction based on assessment information— so that each student can learn as much as possible as efficiently as possible.
Differentiation is not… • New • IEP’s for all; individualized instruction • Tracking • Constant group work • Occasional variation on teaching style • “On the spot”
What are the students saying? When I feel lost in class… • I play with my hair • I wish the teacher would know how I feel and would help me. • I want to go home and watch TV. • I get mad. • I feel scared. Sometimes I try to listen harder but mostly it doesn’t work. What does it feel like when classes move too slowly… • I color my nails with a pen. • One thing my sister taught me to do is to listen to music in my head or to think back to a movie, to its funny parts.
Consequences of not Differentiating • Socrates was a famous Greek teacher who went around giving people advice. They killed him. Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock. • Bach was the most famous composer in the world, and so was Handel. Handel was half-German, Half-Italian and half English. He was very large Bach died from 1750 to the present. Beethoven wrote music even though he was deaf. He was so deaf he wrote loud music. He took long walks in the forest even when everyone was calling for him. Beethoven expired in 1827 and later died for this. • I am not sure how clouds get formed. But the clouds know how to do it, and that is the important thing. • Writing at the same time as Shakespeare was Miguel Cervantes. He wrote Donkey Hote. The next great author was John Milton. Milton wrote Paradise Lost. Then his wife died and he wrote Paradise regained.
Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Shaped by mindset & guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Quality Curriculum Flexible grouping Continual assessment Bldg. Community Teachers can differentiate through Content Product Affect/Environment Process According to students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Think-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts…Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies….Intelligence Preferences…Orbitals…Complex Instruction…4MAT…Web Quests & Web Inquiry…ETC.
Content: Common Ways to Differentiate Content: • Leveled texts • Same theme; different context topic • Varied math operations • Interest centers; free choice time • Mini lessons on how to … • Books on tape; highlighted text, reading partners Strickland- ASCD What students learn and the materials or mechanisms through which that is accomplished.
Process Common Ways to Differentiate Process: • Opportunity to work in pairs or groups • Group roles • Dictated journal entries • Use of technology • Amount or kind of teacher help available • Various types of graphic organizers and supporting documents • Varied task directions • Tiered activities Strickland -ASCD It describes activities designed to ensure that students use key skills to make sense out of essential ideas and information. How they learn it.
Product Common Ways to Differentiate Product • Product options • Tiered products Varied criteria for success • Varied timelines • Varied Audiences Strickland - ASCD They are vehicles through which students demonstrate and extend what they have learned
Community Builder: “Four of a Kind” Differences Differences Differences Differences Similarities (Find four common similarities)
Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a students works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place. -Tomlinson 2003
Perspiring task Target For Challenge Too Overpowering Appropriate Challenge Too Comfortable PANIC PANIC Zone of Proximal Development and Flow Paralyzing task Known task PANIC Karen Lelli Austin
Teaching Up If we assume that students can do more than we think they can and plan to prove our assumption is correct, it most likely will be. The most powerful differentiation will always occur when we ask ourselves the questions, “What are the essential understandings and skills that serve as a baseline for my most able students?”and “How can I plan to support all my students in achieving those baselines?” Always scaffold up. Never dumb down!!
Tiered Tasks A readiness-based approach designed to help all learners work with the same essential information, ideas, and skills, but at a degree of difficulty “just a little too hard” for that learner. Criteria for Effective Tiering • All tasks are focused on the same essential knowledge, understanding and skill • All tasks at a high level of thinking • All tasks equally engaging Many Approaches Can Be Tiered Activities, labs, centers, journal prompts, homework, products, tests/assessments, discussion questions . . . C. Tomlinson
Create an activity that is • interesting • high level • causes students to use • key skill(s) to understand • a key idea High skill/ Complexity Low skill/ complexity Chart the complexity of the activity • Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, in • materials – basic to advanced • form of expression – from familiar to unfamiliar • from personal experience to removed from personal experience • equalizer Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements Developing a Tiered Activity 1 2 • Select the activity organizer • concept • generalization • Think about your students/use assessments • readiness range • interests • learning profile • talents Essential to building a framework of understanding skills reading thinking information 3 4 5 6
Tiered Lesson Planning Sheet Tiering is a readiness response, and usually differentiates the skill levels of students. The skills are the “Do” part of the learning goals, the verbs. Sometimes, though, the content level or the difficulty/complexity of the problem or task is the differentiating element in a tiered lesson. Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681
Tiered Lesson on SequenceThe teacher will assign the student the sequence task of most appropriate challenge based on pre-assessment. Students may work alone or with a skill-alike partner. Students may present to teacher individually, or they may present to another student who has done a different sequence. Learning Goals: Place items in order of occurrence. Use vocabulary teacher has introduced (first, next, last; or first, second, third; or before and after) • Using 3 simple pictures, a student will put them in order of occurrence. (Example: Man blowing up balloon. Child with balloon in hand, smiling. Child with sad face and balloon popping.) Student will then explain aloud to another student and teacher, describing the action sequence. Remind student to use either first, next, last; or before and after. • Using 4-5 pictures, a student will put them in order of occurrence. (Example: Photo of bread on plate and person unscrewing peanut butter jar. Photo of peanut butter being spread on bread. Photo of second slice of bread being placed on top. Photo of knife being used to cut sandwich into diagonals. Photo of child eating sandwich.) Student will then explain aloud to another student and teacher, describing the action sequence. Remind student to use either first, second, third; or before and after. Sandra Page email@example.com 919/929-0681
The teacher prepares a plastic baggy for every student. Inside each baggy are photos/pictures of food items and the names of those items. Students will sort the items onto a paper plate (labeled Dough) and will place the names of the items on a blank sheet of paper (labeled List.) Every student will have a baggy, a Dough plate, and a blank List. Each student will have 8 pictures. Choices of pictures might include: Cheese, Carrots, Peppers, Pears, Pineapple, Pickles, Fish, Meat, Mustard, Tomatoes, Trix cereal, Salt, Sauce, Sugar, etc. Some items should be yucky or funny. The initial letters in each word should be ones that you have recently practiced or want the students to review. The word choices will vary with the readiness of the student, choosing easier initial letter sounds for Group A and harder words and initial letter sounds for Group B. Make a Pizza: a tiered Pre-K reading lessonLearning Goals: Students will organize ideas, create a list, and learn to recognize initial consonant sounds in words, sounds for Group B. Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681
Tiering: Make a pizza, continued Group A Place 8 easier words and pictures in baggy. Each picture will have a box below it with the word typed in easy to read font. The students must choose items that they will want on their pizza. Each student will cut apart the picture and word and paste the word on the blank List and paste the picture on the blank Dough plate. They must choose at least 3 items from the baggy. Using a red crayon, they may color on sauce (if you wish, do this before pasting). The student will read and point to the list the items that they must buy to make their pizza. Group B Eight pictures and 8 words are separately placed in a baggy. The words may have more difficult initial sounds. Students will match pictures to words, first. To do this, they may either sound out the word or look for the picture and word in a picture dictionary or teacher made reference list. The student chooses items that they want on their pizza. They paste the picture on the blank Dough plate. (Again, they may color on the plate, if you wish, to show red sauce. Do this before or after pasting pictures.) The student will then copy/write the words onto the blank list & read aloud the items to make that pizza. If writing is too difficult for some, student may paste words. Sandra Page email@example.com 919/929-0681
A. Create a fortune lines visual (with narration) that shows the emotional state of the little prince at what you believe are the 8-10 most important points in the book. Explain why you selectedthese events. B. Create a fortune lines visual (with narration) that shows the emotional state of the little prince at what you believe are the 8-10 most important points in the book. Be sure to arrange them in the order in which they happened rather than the order they are written about in the book. Defend your selection of events and your chronology. Varying Journal Prompting
Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density & Buoyancy Introduction: All students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys. Activities Common to All Three Groups • Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy • Determine density • Conduct an experiment • Write a lab report • Work at a high level of thinking • Share findings with the class
The Soda Group • Given four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can. • They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy.
The Brine & Egg Group • Students developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and observing. • They answered questions about their procedures and observations, as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.
The Boat Group • Students first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race. • They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density. • They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold. • They built and tested the boat and its projected load. • They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo.
Green Group Use Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model simple fraction addition problems. Begin with common denominators and work up to denominators with common factors such as 3 and 6. Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs of adding fractions by making a picture book. Red Group Use Venn diagrams to model LCMs. Explain how this process can be used to find common denominators. Use the method on more challenging addition problems. Write a manual on how to add fractions. It must include why a common denominator is needed, and at least three different ways to find it. Blue Group Manipulatives such as Cuisinaire rods and fraction circles will be available as a resource for the group. Students use factor trees and lists of multiples to find common denominators. Using this approach, pairs and triplets of fractions are rewritten using common denominators. End by adding several different problem of increasing challenge and length. Suzie says that adding fractions is like a game: you just need to know the rules. Write game instructions explaining the rules of adding fractions. Adding Fractions
Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students. - Tomlinson 2003
Reading Homework Choice BoardYou will have 3 reading assignments this week. You must choose to do an option to respond to each reading as homework, and choose 3 different options total. This contract gives students choices that appeal to learning preferences. Don’t feel you must grade or go over every homework item. Ask students which of these response techniques helped them best understand the reading. Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681
Differentiation By InterestSocial Studies Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things -- read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers, diaries of slaves), had guest speakers, visited a battlefield, etc. As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles related to culture, conflict change and interdependence.
Differentiation By InterestSocial Studies (cont’d) She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those listed were: music reading food books sports/recreation transportation travel mysteries people heroes/ villains cartoons families medicine teenagers humor clothing
Differentiation By InterestSocial Studies(cont’d) Students had as supports for their work: • a planning calendar • criteria for quality • check-in dates - options for expressing what they learned - data gathering matrix (optional) - class discussions on findings, progress, snags -mini-lessons on research (optional)
Reading Center Choice Board: You must read 3 things in a column, a row, or a diagonal to get a bingo this week. Sandra Page email@example.com 919/929-0681
Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture, and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. - Tomlinson 2003
Sternberg’s Three Intelligences Analytical Practical Creative
Primary Measuring: Sternberg Tasks Children explore and discover simple ways to measure. [HSCOF-3.3.4, 4.2.3] [GLCE-M.UN.00.01-.05] Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681
Primary Transportation by learning modality continued Sandra Page email@example.com 919/929-0681
Using Learning Modalities in ReadingPractice with Sight Words Kinesthetic • word puzzles (building sight words with form-fitting pieces) • building words with magnetic letters, letter cards, Elkonin boxes • clapping letters and/or rhymes of words Oral • flashcard practice with partner • saying/reading aloud sentence/book containing sight words • singing song with sight words (Humpty Dumpty – Humpty Dumpty had to go, Humpty Dumpty then said ‘NO’! Visual • use tree map to sort sight words by 2, 3, 4,etc. letters • locate sight words within a text • word wall activities (rhyming, riddles, etc.) • cloze activity of placing sight words within a sentence Auditory • read words with an emotion (in – scary voice, the – happy voice) • echo reading of sight words or sentence using sight words • listen to story with text present and sight words highlighted Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681
Meteorologist: You are a meteorologist working for Channel 29 News. The show will “air” in 10 minutes with the weekend’s forecast, but all the equipment is failing. Look out your “windows” and use the clouds to predict the weather forecast for the local community. You can either write your script for the news show explaining your prediction and your reasons for the prediction, create a poster or prop for the news show that shows the audience what you think the weather will do and why, or role-play the part of the meteorologist and verbally present your forecast predictions to the audience. Learning Profile Science Activity Cindy Strickland 08
Learner Cards Jamala Fisher 3 Front Rdg LevelSch.Affil +321 – 123- + - Int Soccer Mysteries Video Games LPS/P Q/N ELLV/A/K G/S A/P/C P/W Back Nanci Smith ‘03