Ethnicity By: Emily Skirpan and Caleigh Hensley
Race Vs. Ethnicity • What is race? • Race is used to describe an identity with a group of people that descend from a common ancestor • Words to describe race are: • Caucasian • African American • What is ethnicity? • Ethnicity is used to describe an identity with a group of people that share distinct mental and physical traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions • *Race can be used to describe ethnicity!
Where are ethnicities concentrated? • African American – Mostly concentrated in the South, and some cities up North • Asian American – Mostly concentrated on the West coast and Hawaii • Latin American – Mostly concentrated in the Southwest and bordering states • Native American – Mostly concentrated in the Southwest and a few Midwest states
History of slavery and segregation • The Triangular Slave Trade – Slaves were sent primarily to Caribbean Islands and traded for sugar and molasses • The slaves were sent to work on plantations in the Southern part of the United States • The Civil War lead to tension over the question and morality of slavery • The Emancipation Proclamation followed by the 13th Amendment ended slavery in the US • Sharecropping resulted as a part of the slaves’ freedom
Racial Discrimination • Although slaves were freed, there were still tensions between racial groups • Jim Crow Laws- The systematic practice of discriminating against and segregating Black people, especially as practiced in the American South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid-20th century • Brown v. Board of Education- court case that ruled separate schools for blacks and whites unconstitutional
Apartheid • Apartheid – “Separateness” between whites and blacks in South Africa • This is a good example of racial discrimination in the 20th century
Ethnic cleansing • Ethnic cleansing – the desire to kill or remove every man, woman, and child of one ethnic group • Example: Bosnian Serbs (Orthodox Christians) against Bosnian Muslims in former Yugoslavia • Genocide- the deliberate and systematic destruction of a group of people because of their ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race. • Example: The Genocide in Rwanda and the Holocaust
Key terms • Racism - belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement • Racist- person with a prejudiced belief that one race is superior to others • nation-state- state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality • Race -people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock • Apartheid - a rigid policy of segregation of the non-white population in the country of South Africa. An system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc. • Balkanization -to divide (a country, territory, or other geographic area) into small, quarrelsome, and ineffectual states.
Key terms from this chapter • Nationalism - the loyalty and devotion towards a particular country or nation • Nationality - the identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country • Centrifugal force - the apparent force that seems to draw away from unity of a group • Ethnic cleansing - the systematic elimination of an ethnic group, or groups from a region or society through deportation, forced emigration, or genocide • Ethnicity - group identification based on shared ethnic traits, background, allegiance, or association • Enclave – a country surrounded by a foreign country; a group living within a larger group • Acculturation -the modification of one's culture with a prolonged interaction involving another culture
Key Terms • Genetics -the science of heredity, dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment. • Ethnicity -identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions. • Genocide -the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. • Triangular slave trade - an efficient triangular trading pattern • Exclave - portion of a country geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory • multi-ethnic state – a state that contains more one ethnicity. • multinational state – a state that contains two or more ethnic groups