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Inconsistency Under the Consistent Rules Issues on Chinese Cataloging in CJK. CJK cataloging-- a historic achievement Pinyin Conversion – Standardized romanization Chinese catalogers are creating records under AACR2 LCRI Pinyin Romanization Guideline

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inconsistency under the consistent rules issues on chinese cataloging in cjk

Inconsistency Under the Consistent RulesIssues on Chinese Cataloging in CJK

CJK cataloging-- a historic achievement

Pinyin Conversion – Standardized romanization

Chinese catalogers are creating records under AACR2


Pinyin Romanization Guideline

Chinese cataloging in CJK are getting more and more standardized and upgraded

inconsistency under the consistent rules issues on chinese cataloging in cjk1

Inconsistency Under the Consistent RulesIssues on Chinese Cataloging in CJK

Pinyin conversion and manual review have been completed

Some inconsistency still exists in cataloging Chinese materials

Some unresolved issues remain:

Pinyin Romanization

Adoption of vernacular


issues on chinese cataloging in cjk

Issues on Chinese Cataloging in CJK

Eight issues about Chinese cataloging are listed here for discussion

Issue One : Cataloging Chinese materials in romanizing Chinese vernacular

Issue Two : Vernacular (character) spacing or logic group to facilitate the better understanding

Issue Three : Knowledge of Chinese culture, history, and geography

issues on chinese cataloging in cjk1

Issues on Chinese Cataloging in CJK

Issue Four: Information recorded should be as accurate as possible

Issue Five: Language code (041) application

Issue Six: Chinese vernacular, traditional Chinese v.s. the simplified Chinese

Issue Seven: Translating data into field 880

Issue Eight: Cooperation

issues one

Issues One

Pinyin conversion– completed

Manual review -- finished

There are still some questions and inconsistency in romanizing Chinese vernacular by using Pinyin.


中华民国 (the Republic of China, Zhonghua Minguo) is often abbreviated as“民国”,and romanized as “Minguo”

issue one

Issue One

The latest information from Cathy Yang

(NACO Pinyin coordinator of LC cooperative authority)

Right Romanization of “民国”--“Minguo”

(do NOT give a apostrophe)

In LC “Pinyin Conversion Project, New Chinese Romanization Guidelines”

“民国” is Romanized as “Min guo” In “Chinese Rules of Application Romanization 1. ALA-LC Romanization”

“民国” is romanized as “Minguo” .

issue one1

Issue One

A search by title, “vt 民国” in OCLC provides the following statistics

Year Title Rom. 1 Rom.2 Rom.3 Rom.4

1998 (1) 99 2 Minguo 95 Min guo 2 Min’guo

1998 (2) 46 1 Minguo 45 Min guo

1999 97 8 Minguo 86 Min guo 1 Min’guo 2 Min kuo

2000 (1) 99 2 Minguo 97 Min guo

2000 (2) 18 0 Minguo 18 Min guo

2001-2002 56 22 Minguo 34 Min guo

A search by sca ti “Min kou” , 27 titles are found

issue one2

Issue One

This situation is also found in publisher, 260 fields, as well as other

places. Various romanizations of “民国” are found:

1. Minguo 2. Min guo 3. Min kuo 4. min guo 5. min’guo.

# 44470407 min'guo;

#13364665 min guo.

010: 89641004 Min kuo

#33955494 Zhonghua min guo (245 field)

# 26107305 min kuo

#20811547 Zhonghuamin'guo

#41985431 Min guo

………….. Minguo ……………

issue one3

Issue One

Different romanization will provide different access points and greatly affect information retrieval. It is not a good practice to use and not good status to have the various romanization, for “ 民国”.

It is necessary now:

Restate the guideline

Build a consensus

Unify the practice among Chinese catalogers at least in CEAL

Extend our rules and consistent practice to the others

issue one problem to be dealt with in the future

Issue oneProblem to be dealt with in the future

Right romanization: “民国” --“Minguo”

How will it be dealt with hundreds of Min guo, Min kuo, min guo , and min’guo etc.

used in titles, publishers, and other places?

This also raises the issue of the long and arduous task before us the “REVIEW”

No matter how inconsistent it was before, Chinese catalogers should use the decided form “Minguo” in the future.

issue two

Issue Two

Libraries are becoming capable of displaying and searching CJK vernaculars

More precise information

More accurate access points to both users and librarians

CJK catalogers are encouraged to catalog with vernacular

Pinyin guideline :

“Separate the Romanization of each Chinese character

with a space including corporate names, terms of address

and titles of royalty. Do not join syllables of general, non- specific geographic terms.”

(ALA-LC Romanization Tables)

issue two1

Issue Two

However, for Chinese vernacular, there is no space necessary to

separate them although sometimes recording Chinese vernacular

without space can be confusing, especially for the classic Chinese


“ 下雨天留客天留我不留”,



But few modern Chinese can bring about confusion

The current cataloging is to put the Chinese vernacular together like:

外文出版社, 孙中山, 中国文化大革命文库etc.

issue two2

Issue Two

However, the separation or aggregation of vernacular often found

in records:

#48231969 : Zhongguo yin yue wen hua da guan / $c Jiang Jing,

Guan Jianhua, Qian Rong zhu bian

中国音乐文化大观 / $c 将菁,管建华,钱茸主编。

Even if space is preferred, the logic group should be kept together,

if not, the aggregation will cause more confusion


710:2 : Shichuan Sheng she hui ke xue yuan.

710:2 : 四川省社会科学院.

issue two3

Issue Two

Inconsistent Practice exists here too:

Recording Chinese characters some with spaces and some without spaces such as:

260: : Beijing : $b Ren min chu ban she : $b Xin hua shu dian jing xiao, $c 1999.

260 : :北京 : $b 人民出版社 : 新华书店经销, $c 1999.

Another common inconsistent practice is to separate Last name from the first name like #43691519

100 1 Xiao, Qihong.

100 1 萧 启宏.

issue two4
Issue Two

For your discussion:


100 1 Wu, Huan.

100 1 吴欢.

245 10 Xi pi liu shui / $c Wu Huan wen ; Wang Yan hua.

245 10 西皮流水 / $c 吴欢文 ; 王焱画.


245 00 Li dai ming ren bing cheng ci dian / $c [bian zhu zhe Long Qian'an, Li Xiaosong, Huang Hun].

245 00 历代名人并称辞典 / $c [编著者 龙潛庵, 李小松, 黃昏]

issue thee

Issue Thee

While cataloging Chinese materials, sometimes background


Chinese culture

Chinese history

Chinese geography


will be helpful to avoid some mistakes

Look at the following examples:

issue three

Issue Three

020 7810580590

090 PL1271 $b .W353 1998090

049 FUGG

100 1 Wang, Liyan.

100 1 汪丽炎.

245 10 Han yu xie zuo / $c Wang Liyan zhu.

245 10 汉语写作 / $c 汪丽炎著.

250 Di 1 ban.

250 第1版.

260 Beijing : $b Shanghai da xue chu ban she, ßc 1998.

260 北京 : $b 上海大学出版社, $c 1998.

300 416 p. : $b ill. ; $c 20 cm.

440 0 Han yu yan wen xue zhi shi cong shu

440 0 汉语言文学知识丛书

650 0 Chinese language ßx composition.

987 PINYIN $b OCoLC $c 20010517 $d c $e 04.15.2001

issue three example one

Issue ThreeExample One

Obviously, the book is published by

“Shanghai da xue chu ban she”

“Shaihai Da Xue” (Shanghai University) should be

in Shanghai instead of Beijing.

Therefore, the knowledge of Chinese

geographical locations can avoid this mistake

Please look at the next example:

issue three example two

Issue ThreeExample Two

020 7224046787 (pbk.) : $c $40.00 (2 vol. set)

042 pcc

082 04 808.83 ß2 21

049 FUGG

245 00 Feng jing xiao shu / $c Jia ping'ao zhu bian.

245 00 风情小说 / $c 贾平凹主编.

246 1 $i PINYIN: $a Feng Qing xiao shu

250 Di 1 ban.250 第1版.

260 Xi'an : $b Shan xi ren min chu ban she, $c 1998.

260 西安 : $b 陝西人民出版社, $c 1998.

2 v. ; $c 21 cm.

490 0 Zhongguo dang dai xiao shuo jing pin.

490 0 中囯当代小说精品.

700 1 Jia, Ping‘ao.

700 1 贾平凹.

987 PINYIN $b OCoLC $c 20010531 $d c $e 04.15.2001

issue three example two1

Issue ThreeExample Two

Many Chinese words have more than one pronunciation.

“凹” can be pronounced as “ao” or “wa”

“贾平凹” is a very famous author in mainland China,

the character” 凹” here is pronounced as “wa”,

“凹” here is equal to “洼“ and often used as a place name

The right choice is “wa” instead of “ao”

This is very difficult for anyone to get it right for the first time

without the background knowledge.

issue four

Issue Four

One of the common practice is to record a book’s (or other

material’s) price in the subfield c in 020 field  

Look at the above example above :

020: : 7224046787 (pbk.) : $c $40.00 (2 vol. set)

According to the book here, it is 40.00 Chinese Yuan instead

of U.S. dollars.

Therefore the correct recording:

020: : 7224046787 (pbk.) : $c RMBY40.00 (2 vol. set).

Another case in #50197143, the price is recorded as :

020 7301053398 : $c CNY32.00

260 Beijing : $b Beijing da xue chu ban she, $c 2002.

260 北京 : $b 北京大学出版社, $c 2002.

issue five

Issue Five

Recently we have collected several books under the series title:

Jing dai de hui sheng (经典的回声, Echo of classics)

Searching this series in OCLC on Jan. 25, 2003,

28 titles are found

There are the six ways of recordings the language code in field 041 

1. 041 :0 : engchi $h eng 1

2. 041 :1 : chieng $h chi 13

3. 041 :0 : chi $h eng 2

4. 041 :0 : chieng 9

5. 041 :0 : chi $h chi 1

6. 2 no 041 but with 500 note “Text in Chinese and English”

issue five1

Issue Five

1. This series is in Chinese

2. It does include the English translation from Chinese

3. The original is in Chinese

Therefore, the first indicator will be 1.

(1 Item is or includes a translation)

Since it is in Chinese with parallel Chinese translation,

subfield a ($a) will be “chieng”

(Text in both Chinese and English)

The original language is Chinese therefore subfield h ($h) will be “chi” transcribed as “$h chi”.

[$h Lang. code of original and/or intermediate translations of text (R)]

All in all, number two would be the right choice

issue six

Issue Six

Chinese vernacular: two ways of writing

traditional Chinese ( Fan ti) v.s. simplified Chinese (Jian ti)

AACR2 requires catalogers to record vernacular exactly as what is seen from the material at hand

If the material is recorded in traditional Chinese

-- use traditional Chinese

If the material uses the simplified Chinese

-- record it with simplified Chinese

If any combination of both trational and simplified ones

-- record it with the combinations as the vernacular appear in the information sources from the book

issue six example

Issue SixExample

245 00 Taiwan xin wen xue si chao shi gang / $c zhu bian Lèu Zhenghui, Zhao


245 00 台湾新文学思潮史纲 / $c 主编吕正惠, 赵遐秋.

Di 1 ban.250 第1版.2

260 Beijing : $b Kun lun chu ban she, $c 2002.

260 北京 : $b 崑崙出版社, $c 2002.

3, 4, 453 p. ; $c 21 cm.

650 0 Chinese literature $z Taiwan $x History and criticism.

700 1 Lèu, Zhenghui, $d 1948-

呂正惠, $d 1948-

700 1 Zhao, Xiaqiu.

700 1 赵遐秋.

Double check of the book, the publisher uses the simplified Chinese and therefore, it is proper to record the publisher by using the simplified form:

260 北京 : $b 昆仑出版社, $c 2002.

issue six1

Issue Six

As for Chinese catalogers,

Familiar with the traditional Chinese

--have to learn the simplified

Do not know the traditional Chinese

--have to learn and use traditional Chinese

issue seven
Issue Seven

880 parallel vernacular data fields contain data

Chinese translation of English data such as GMD. “electronic resources” and “videorecording”


245 00 Ce kong ji shu $h [electronic resource]

245 00 測控技術 $h [電子資源]


245 00 Fa xian cao yuan $h [videorecording] : $b

Chengjisihan jue qi de mi mi / $c dao yan Han Yali ……

245 00 發現草原 $h [錄像資料] : $b 成吉思汗崛起的秘密 / $c 导演韩亚利 ………..

issue seven1
Issue Seven

This issue also exists in

310 serials frequency

5xx not “Sponsored by”

Other fields and places

“OCLC quality control staff perspective is that translating data into field 880 is incorrect and results in a record which is a hybrid of two languages of cataloging.”

(Robert Bremer)

issue eight

Issue Eight

We -- OCLC CJK users and contributors

“use” as well as “contribute”

Contributors try to guarantee the accuracy of information but “Error is human”

Users should try to promote the information accuracy

Each copy, an opportunity of “REVIEW”

Problems and mistakes found,

try to correct or report it


Ü020 7532607410

Ü090 DS734 ßb .L395 2001


Ü245 00 Li dai ming ren bing cheng ci dian / ßc [bian zhu zhe Long Qian'an, Li Xiaosong, Huang Hun].

Ü245 00 历代名人并称辞典 / ßc [编著者 龙潛庵, 李小松, 黃昏]

Ü250 Di 1 ban.

Ü250 第1版.

Ü260 Shanghai : ßb Shanghai ci shu chu ban she, ßc 2001.

Ü260 上海 : ßb 上海辞书出版社, ßc 2001.

Ü500 Includes index.

Ü651 0 China ßx Biography ßv Dictionaries ßx Chinese.

Ü700 1 Long, Qian'an.

Ü700 1 龙潛庵.

Ü700 1 Li, Xiaosong.

Ü700 1 李小松.

Ü700 1 Huang, Hun.

Ü700 1 黃昏. (300 field is missing)

Ü987 PINYIN ßb OU ßd c(12 Total Holdings)