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Presentation to the 8 th Annual Georgia School of Addiction Studies. Evidence Based Principles of Offender Rehabilitation Christopher A. Petrozzi, Senior Vice President of Correctional Services. Prevalence of Individual Adverse Childhood Experiences.

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presentation to the 8 th annual georgia school of addiction studies

Presentation to the 8th Annual Georgia School of Addiction Studies

Evidence Based Principles of Offender Rehabilitation

Christopher A. Petrozzi,

Senior Vice President of Correctional Services

enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood
Enduring Effects of Abuse and Related Adverse Experiencesin Childhood

Childhood maltreatment has been linked to a variety of changes in brain structure and function and stress-responsive neurobiological systems

An expanding body of research suggests that early stressors cause long term changes in multiple brain circuits and systems (Sanchez 2001; Bremner 2003a)

enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood1
Enduring Effects of Abuse and Related Adverse Experiences in Childhood

The ACE score had a strong, graded relationship to the prevalence and risk of affective disturbances (mental health disturbances). For persons with ≥ 4 ACEs, the risk of panic reactions, depressed affect, anxiety, and hallucinations were increased 2.5-, 3.6-, 2.4 and 2.7-fold, respectively.

Substance use and abuse also increased as the ACE score increased. The risk of smoking, alcoholism, illicit drug use, and injected drug use were increased 1.8-, 7.2-, 4.5-, and 11.1-fold, respectively, for persons with ≥ 4 ACEs.

All three measures of sexuality were associated with the ACE score. The risk of early intercourse, promiscuity, and sexual dissatisfaction were increased 6.6-, 3.6-, and 2-fold, respectively, for persons with ≥ 4 ACEs.

enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood2
Enduring Effects of Abuse and Related Adverse Experiences in Childhood

The risk of impaired memory of childhood was increased 4.4-fold for persons with ≥ 4 ACEs. The number of age periods affected for memory disturbances increased in a graded fashion as the ACE score increased.

High perceived stress, difficulty controlling anger, and the risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV) were increased 2.2-, 4.0-, and 5.5-fold, respectively, for persons with ≥ 4 ACEs


Pattern of behavior that is seen across the lifetime

Pattern of rule breaking & criminality

Disengagement from cultural norms for achievement and behavior

Easily bored and often irritable

Risky behavior despite high likelihood of punishment

Delinquency often resulting in incarceration

Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

progression of delinquency
Progression of Delinquency

Hyperactivity School Conduct Problems Academic Problems Drug Use

Suspension Criminality

Oppositional Disengagement Delinquent Peer

Aggression Group Incarceration

Pre SchoolMiddle SchoolAdolescence

Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

current delinquency interventions
Current Delinquency Interventions
  • Few impulsive or aggressive children receive any form of intervention
  • Those who are treated usually receive some form of group intervention:

Special Education Placements

Summer School / Summer Camps


Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

mesolimbic dopamine activity
Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity

Phasic Response

Tonic Activity



Reward Cue Satiation

Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

adhd mesolimbic dopamine activity
ADHD Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity

Phasic Response

Tonic Activity




Reward Cue Satiation

Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

dopamine impulsivity
Dopamine & Impulsivity

Dopamine - neurotransmitter that controls the brain's reward and pleasure centers. DA helps regulate movement and emotional responses, it enables us to see rewards and take action to move toward them. The major behaviors dopamine affects are movement, cognition, pleasure, and motivation.

Children with ADHD exhibit low tonic and low phasic activity

Low mesolimbic DA activity is predisposing to impulsivity & aggression

Environmental stress during development exacerbates this effect (i.e., further down regulation)

This effect can be pre-natal or post-natal

Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

reward seeking model
Reward Seeking Model

People low in tonic DA activity experience high levels of negative affect and irritability

This leads to reward seeking behavior to up-regulate a chronically aversive mood

Low phasic DA activity means less pleasure from reward seeking behaviors

This elicits more reward seeking and predisposes to delinquency – high risk environments have lots of opportunities for maladaptive reward seeking

Beauchalne, T. & Tapert ,S. Brain Science as a Means to Understanding Delinquency & Substance Abuse in Youth . U WTV

cost of incarceration
Cost of Incarceration

Incarceration rates flat for nearly 50 years up until the “War on Drugs,” and “Get Tough on Crime”

US incarcerates 730/100,000, England 140/100,000

2.2 Million Americans Incarcerated

Disproportionate Number of Minorities

costs of incarceration
Costs of Incarceration

20% of African Americans and 10% of Latinos serve time in prison

Once incarcerated there are limited opportunities for upward mobility

Nationally, recidivism rates are over 60% within five years

Early intervention is far more effective than incarceration when delivered before delinquency emerges


Set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practicesthat constitutes a way of viewing reality.

criminal world view paradigm
Criminal World View Paradigm

Offenders base their criminal lives on escaping accountability

Offenders experience a set of attitudes perceptions and thinking patterns that add up to a special subjective logic, a criminal world view

Offenders’ perception of their relationship with legitimate authority is at the crux of this world view

criminal world view paradigm1
Criminal World View Paradigm
  • Offenders frequently view authority, social limits and accountability as a challenge to their power and autonomy
  • When forced to be accountable offenders feel themselves to be confronted by an unjust force and see themselves as victims
cognitive behavioral model
Cognitive Behavioral Model

Behaviors – “Burglary, Theft”

Cognitions – “ Lot’s of people get away with it”

Attitudes – “it’s a dog eat dog world”

Beliefs – “people like me never get breaks”

Values – “money/status”

culture clash cognitive dissonance
Culture Clash / Cognitive Dissonance

Prison CulturePro-Social Culture

Don’t trust, talk, or feelTrust, disclose

Don’t be weak Risk vulnerability

Do your own time Responsible concern

Live for today Plan for the future

Get respect Offer respect

Suffer in private Seek help

Retaliation Acceptance / Surrender

criminal desistance
Criminal Desistance

Best defined as a process, not an event, in which the frequency of crimes decelerates and exhibits less variety (Bushway et al., 2001; Laub and Sampson, 2003; Maruna, 2001;Uggen and Massoglia, 2003; Weitekamp and Kerner, 1994; Loeber and LeBlanc, 1990; LeBlanc and Fréchette, 1989).

criminal desistance1
Criminal Desistance

There is remarkable heterogeneity in criminal offending

It is useful to view criminality as following a path consisting of one or more crime and non-crime cycles (Glaser, 1969)

Decision to stop appears to be preceded by a variety of negative consequences both formal and informal

process of individual change
Process of Individual Change

Prison releasees arrested for property or drug offenses are more likely to be arrested early in the post release period than those arrested for violent offenses

Although risk for arrest declines over time for all three crime types, a much steeper decline occurs for property and drug offenders, whose arrest risk drops by nearly 50 percent between the 1st and 15th month after release; for violent offenders, the decline is only about 20 percent from the 1st to the 15th month out of prison.

process of individual change1
Process of Individual Change

Multiple processes appear to be involved in sustaining and reinforcing the decision to change.

Motivation and commitment

Initial behavior change

Maintenance of change (Brownell et al., 1986).

process of individual change2
Process of Individual Change

The goal of desistance programs is not necessarily zero offending, but less offending and less serious offending

It is important for policy makers and program administrators to have realistic goals and to have forms of punishments/sanctions and rewards available that will support these goals

process of individual change3
Process of Individual Change

A main objective of intensive supervision parole is a reduction in recidivism for new crimes

A rigorous study by Petersilia and Turner (1993) of intensive supervision parole and probation programs in nine states, found that offenders in intensive supervision programs had relatively the same number of subsequent arrests, but more technical violations and returns to incarceration, than their no intensive supervision program counterparts

process of individual change4
Process of Individual Change

However, if those programs combined drug treatment, community service, and employment programs with surveillance, recidivism rates were 10 to 20 percent lower than for those who did not participate in such activities

A meta-analysis of intensive supervision probation and parole programs also found that combining surveillance with treatment resulted in reduced recidivism (Gendreau and Little, 1993)

termination of criminal career
Termination of Criminal Career

The successful establishment of bonds with conventional others and participation in conventional activities are major contingencies on the path that leads to termination of a criminal career, (Shover, 1996)

A process characterized by particular behavioral states or markers is marked by the assumption of:

  • Adult occupational and family roles, Uggen & Massoglia (2003)
  • Social integration or reintegration through a developed coherent, prosocial identity, Maruna (2001)
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Social Learning Theory: people learn and adopt new behaviors through cognitions,positive and negative reinforcement, observation, and skill practice,(Bandura, 1977; 1969)
  • SLT and Psychology of Criminal Conduct have become the nexus of evidence-based principles of offender rehabilitation
evidence based principles of offender rehabilitation
Evidence Based Principles of Offender Rehabilitation

1. Assess Actuarial Risk/Needs

2. Enhance Intrinsic Motivation

3. Target Interventions:

a. Risk Principle

b. Need Principle

c. Responsivity Principle

d. Dosage

4. Skill Train with Directed Practice (use cognitive behavioral treatment methods)

5. Increase Positive Reinforcement

6. Engage Ongoing Support in Natural Communities

7. Measure Relevant Processes/Practices

8. Provide Measurement Feedback

National Institute of Corrections & Crime and Justice Institute, (2003)

1 assess actuarial risk needs
1. Assess Actuarial Risk & Needs
  • Clinical judgment has consistently under-predicted re-arrest rates when compared to empirically-based tools
  • Offenders’ characteristics predict future offenses more than the current offense. Use risk tools to determine supervision level. For purposes of risk reduction, risk profile – rather than offense – should drive the intervention.
1 assess actuarial risk needs1
1. Assess Actuarial Risk & Needs

Common Risk/Needs Assessment Instruments

Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) 3G

Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)

Wisconsin Risk and Needs, (CAIS) 4G

Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management Factors (HCR-20) 1G

Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) 4G

2 enhance intrinsic motivation
2. Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Behavioral change is quite often an inside job; for lasting change to occur, there needs to be a level of intrinsic motivation
  • Feelings of ambivalence that usually accompany change can be explored through motivational interviewing-based communication to enhance intrinsic motivation
  • Research strongly suggests that motivational interviewing techniques, rather than persuasion tactics, more effectively enhance motivation for initiating and maintaining change behavior
motivation outcomes
Motivation & Outcomes
  • Research demonstrates that a ratio of four positive affirmations for every, (4:1) expression of disapproval/confrontation has a positive effect on behavioral change.Andrews & Bonta, 2006; Gendreau, 1996; Gendreau & Goggin, 1996; Gendreau, Little, & Goggin, 1996;Gendreau & Paparozzi, 1995.
  • Motivation is dynamic - affected by internal and external factors, but internally motivated change usually lasts longer
self determination theory
Self Determination Theory
  • Studies have shown that a person’s perception of what is prompting the change is more important than what is actually prompting the change
  • According to SDT, staff can increase internal motivation for change by addressing three basic factors:



and relatedness.

  • Autonomy is an individual’s perception of himself or herself as the agent of an action (“I chose to do this”)
  • When people think that they are making changes for their own reasons, they work harder and are more likely to stick with the new behaviors
  • Too much coercion can undermine internal motivation because it makes people feel they are being manipulated, which in turn makes them less likely to change (Deci and Ryan, 1985)
  • Competence involves beliefs about confidence (“I can do this”)
  • To change, a person needs to believe that change is both important and possible
  • Helping offenders set realistic goals, talking about personal strengths, and giving positive feedback on small successes can increase one’s sense of competence
  • Change is more likely when people are available to support the offender
  • Relatedness: powerful explanation of why people sometimes act against their own self-interest (Deci and Ryan, 1985). For better or worse, people tend to behave like those with whom they associate
  • Individuals engage in prosocial behaviorsbecause they are meaningful to others to whom they feel connected
3 a risk principle
3(a) Risk Principle
  • Prioritize primary supervision and treatment resources for offenders who are at higher risk to re-offend
  • Shifting program and personnel resources to focus more on higher risk offenders promotes harm-reduction and public safety

3(a) Risk Level: Patterns in Risk Level & Treatment Intensity


% Recidivism: Tx BY RISK LEVEL


Authors of Study





Low Risk

High Risk



( 6%)

( 22%)

O’Donnell et al., 1971

Low Risk

High Risk





( 7%)

( 19%)

Baird et al., 1979



Low Risk

High Risk



( 5%)

( 27%)

Andrews & Kiessling, 1980

Low Risk

High Risk





( 17%)

( 67%)

Andrews & Friesen, 1987

* Some studies combined intensive Tx with supervision or other services



3(a) Risk Level: Triage

Low Risk Offender – has more favorable pro-social thinking and behavior than other risk levels.

Divert to administrative supervision.


3 a risk principle1
3(a) Risk Principle

Factors Predictive of Prison Misconducts, (Austin, 1998):

Current Age


History of Violence

History of Mental Illness

Gang Membership

Program Participation: Inmates not involved in or not completed programs more likely to commit misconducts

Recent Disciplinary Actions: Inmates with recent misconducts are more likely to continue

Education Level: Predictor of poor institutional adjustment, Proctor 1994, Motiuk(1991) and Stephen (1990; cited in Proctor, 1994), Fernandez and Neiman (1998)

3 a risk principle2
3(a) Risk Principle

Factors Not Predictive of Institutional Misconduct:

Drug and alcohol use

History of escape

Sentence length

Severity of offense

Time left to serve

3 b criminogenic need principle
3(b) Criminogenic Need Principle
  • Criminogenic needs are dynamic risk factors that, when addressed or changed, affect the offender’s risk for recidivism
  • Criminogenic needs contribute to or co-vary with criminal behavior
central eight criminogenic needs
Central Eight Criminogenic Needs

Andrews, Bonta & Wormith, (2006) identified what are referred to as the “central eight” criminogenic needs.

1) Antisocial attitudes/orientation

2) Antisocial peers

3) Antisocial personality

4) Antisocial behavior patterns

5) Absence of pro-social leisure/recreation activities

6) Dysfunctional family

7) Employment issues

8) Substance abuse problems

service tools impact of matching offender needs with appropriate services on recidivism
Service ToolsImpact of Matching Offender Needs with Appropriate Services on Recidivism
antisocial attitudes orientation
Antisocial Attitudes/Orientation
  • Values, beliefs, attitudes, and cognitions relative to criminal conduct and pro-social alternatives are strongly correlated with criminal behavior, (Andrews, Bonta & Wormith, 2005)
antisocial peers
Antisocial Peers
  • Antisocial support network reinforces the behavior, attitudes, orientation, definitions, and technology favorable to committing criminal acts.
  • Antisocial peers and affiliating with security threat groups/gangs is one of the single best predictors of criminal behavior (Andrews, Bonta & Wormith, 2005).
antisocial personality
Antisocial Personality
  • Callousness, risk taking, weak self-control, and high antagonism have been directly linked to criminality, (Andrews, Bonta & Wormith, 2006).
  • Offenders displaying antisocial personality traits often do not care how their actions affect others and do not feel remorse.
antisocial behavior patterns
Antisocial Behavior Patterns
  • Frequent failure to conform to social norms and lawful behavior
  • Impulsivity, aggression, recklessness, conning and manipulation, criminal variability, and absence of remorse usually result in chronic violations of trust and responsibility
absence of pro social leisure recreation activities
Absence of Pro-Social Leisure/Recreation Activities
  • In the absence of constructive and rewarding participation in pro-social activities, offenders with antisocial personality characteristics (e.g., high sensation seeking, substance use, impulsivity) typically gravitate towards pursuits that are incongruent with lawful behavior and pro-social development.
dysfunctional family
Dysfunctional Family
  • The absence of healthy family socialization and role models early on in life can have lasting detrimental effects, including ineffectual parenting, child abuse, family violence, and weak parent/child attachments
  • Many offenders have never experienced interpersonal support for pro-social behavior
  • Family and significant others frequently serve vicariously or deliberately to reinforce antisocial behavior and shun pro-social convention
  • Employment is a primary socialization structure in our culture that provides a crucial source of social bonds
  • Poor education/employment performance, as measured by the LSI-R, has been strongly correlated with recidivism, (Andrews, Bonta & Wormith, 2006)
substance abuse
Substance Abuse
  • The use of alcohol and other drugs impairs insight and judgment, is an instigator for antisocial personality characteristics/behavior patterns, and inhibits pro-social development
3 c responsivity principle not a matter of one size fits all
3(c) Responsivity Principle“Not A Matter of One Size Fits All”
  • General Responsivity: General power of behavioral, social learning, and cognitive-behavioral strategies
  • Specific responsivity: matching services with such things as personality, motivation, ability, age, gender, and ethnicity
3 d dosage
3(d) Dosage
  • Occupy 40%-70% of these offenders’ free time in the community over a three to nine month period. Stimulant use disorders 6-12 months.
  • During this initial phase, higher risk offenders’ free time should be clearly occupied with delineated routine and appropriate services, (e.g., outpatient treatment, employment assistance, education, etc.)
  • Higher risk offenders require significantly more initial structure and services than lower risk offenders
3 d dosage1
3(d) Dosage

A study by Bourgon & Armstrong (2005), noted:

The assessment of both risk and need is necessary to match an offender to a treatment length that will affect recidivism.

  • A minimum of one hundred (100) hours can be effective for moderate risk offenders or those with few criminogenicneeds
  • A minimum of two hundred (200) hours can be effective for offenders who are either high-risk or have multiple criminogenic needs, not both
  • A minimum of three hundred (300) hours may be required for high-risk offenders with multiple criminogenicneeds
translating dosage into practical terms
Translating Dosage Into Practical Terms
  • Length of service must be proportionate to risk and needs, and is significantly related to reductions in recidivism
  • In the early stages of change (pre-contemplation andcontemplation) generally require more external controls and front-loaded services until they have begun to develop their own internal controls and motivation
  • Cognitive-behavioral strategies, must drive the rehabilitation process
treatment principle
Treatment Principle
  • Treatment, particularly cognitive-behavioral types, should be applied as an integral part of the sentence/sanction process
  • Delivering targeted and timely interventions will provide the greatest long-term benefit to the community, the victim, and offenders
  • With criminal justice clients treatment retention for a minimum of 90 days is essential to obtain positive behavioral change, (Hubbard et al., 1989)
treatment principle1
Treatment Principle

Three principal components of the Psychology of Criminal Conduct:

  • program characteristics,
  • program targets,
  • staff characteristics (Gendreau & Andrews, 1994)

Treatment Principle: Treatment Effectiveness

Percentage Reduction in Recidivism in 154 Controlled Studies


(47 studies)

Inappropriate Treatment

(32 studies)


(30 studies)


(54 studies)


(38 studies)

Sources: (1) An Overview of Treatment Effectiveness, D.A. Andrews, 1994.(2)Effects of Community Sanctions and incarceration on recidivism, P. Gendreau, 2001.

treatment principle program characteristics
Treatment PrincipleProgram Characteristics
  • Programs are designed and implemented around Social Learning Theory and deliver effective treatment, (e.g., cognitive-behavioral) and appropriate service & dosage (e.g., competency based phase progression/regression)
  • Programs providing gender-specific female services create a therapeutic milieu that reflects a theoretical orientation and structure born out of Relational Theory, Pathways Theory, Trauma Theory, and Addiction Theory (Covington & Bloom, 2004)
treatment principle program characteristics1
Treatment Principle Program Characteristics
  • Ensure appropriateness based on standardized and objective assessments (e.g., LSI-R, LS/CMI) that incorporate risk, need, and responsivityfactors
  • Target crime producing behaviors and use effective behavioral interventions, (e.g., urinalysis testing, sanctions, and geographic/curfew restrictions) based on providing reinforcement for pro-social and anti-criminal behaviors
  • Provide advocacy and service brokerage, (e.g., family programming, GED, work release, participation in faith-based groups, 12-step support groups)
treatment principle program targets
Treatment Principle: Program Targets
  • Change values, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings favorable to crime and antisocial behavior through cognitive-behavioral strategies
  • Reinforce pro-social affiliations by reducing antisocial peer associations through supervision, service brokerage, and participation in faith-based organizations
  • Address the biopsychosocial problems associated with substance abuse through urinalysis testing, substance abuse treatment, relapse prevention, and wellness programs
  • Teach pro-social alternatives to lying, stealing, and aggression through self-control, self-management, problem solving, and conflict resolution skills
treatment principle program targets1
Treatment Principle: Program Targets
  • Promote positive attitudes regarding education, vocation and employment through community transition programming and work-release programs
  • Promote and improve family socialization and role models through family programming, family monitoring, and supervision
  • Provide opportunities for offenders to empathize with the harm done to victims
  • Provide gender and culturally specific services
treatment principle staff characteristics
Treatment Principle: Staff Characteristics

Andrews and Bonta (1994) identified four essential characteristics of an effective correctional treatment relationship; they contend that effective employees:

  • Establish high quality relationships with the client by being fair, firm, and consistent
  • Demonstrate anti-criminal expressions (i.e., prosocial modeling)
  • Approve of the client’s anti-criminal expressions (i.e., pro-social reinforcement)
  • Disapprove of the client’s pro-criminal expressions (i.e., sacntions,punishment), while at the same time demonstrating alternatives, (i.e., modeling/skills training)
4 skill train with directed practice using cognitive behavioral treatment methods
4) Skill Train with Directed Practice (using cognitive-behavioral treatment methods)
  • Provide evidence-based programming that emphasizes cognitive-behavioral strategies
  • Skills are not just taught to the offender, but are practiced or role-played and the resulting pro-social attitudes and behaviors are positively reinforced by staff
5 increase positive reinforcement
5) Increase Positive Reinforcement
  • People maintain learned behaviors for longer periods of time, when approached with “carrots rather than sticks”
  • Apply a higher ratio of positive reinforcements to negative reinforcements (4:1)in order to better achieve sustained behavioral change
5 increase positive reinforcement1
5) Increase Positive Reinforcement
  • Positive reinforcement should not be done at the expense of or undermine administering swift, certain, and real consequences or sanctions
  • Offenders generally respond positively to reasonable and reliable additional structure and boundaries
  • Offenders and people in general, will tend to comply in the direction of the most rewards and least punishments
6 engage on going support in natural communities
6) Engage On-going Support in Natural Communities
  • Realign and actively engage pro-social supports for offenders in their communities
  • Research has demonstrated the efficacy of using family members, spouses, and supportive others in the offender’s immediate environment to positively reinforce desired new behaviors
  • Relatively recent research now indicates the efficacy of twelve step programs, religious activities, and restorative justice initiatives that are geared towards improving bonds and ties to pro-social community members
7 measure relevant processes practices
7) Measure Relevant Processes/Practices
  • Formal and valid mechanism for measuring outcomes, is the foundation of evidence-based practice
  • Sites must routinely assess offender change in cognitive and skill development, and evaluate offender recidivism, if services are to remain effective
  • Measure and document offender change, staff performance should also be regularly assessed
  • Staff periodically evaluated for performance achieve greater fidelity to program design, service delivery principles, and outcomes
7 measure relevant processes practices performance management
7) Measure Relevant Processes/Practices: Performance Management





8 provide measurement feedback
8) Provide Measurement Feedback
  • The value in measurement is “not in the doing, but in the knowing:”monitor delivery of services, maintain and enhance fidelity and integrity
  • Providing feedback builds accountability and is associated with enhanced motivation for change, lower treatment attrition, and better outcomes
8 provide measurement feedback1
8) Provide Measurement Feedback

Share findings with: offender, staff, program/agency, and jurisdiction-wide:

Feedback to offenders reinforces accountability. Motivation to change increases when offenders observe connections among positive actions, positive rewards, and a reduction in disapprovals/sanctions

Feedback to staff (at all levels, in all positions) supports individual and programmatic improvement

8 provide measurement feedback2
8) Provide Measurement Feedback

Feedback to programs/DOC supports evaluation of the degree to which goals are being met

Feedback to jurisdictions enables stakeholders to assess the extent to which the system as a whole is meeting its stated purposes, operating efficiently and effectively

principles of effective intervention
Principles of Effective Intervention

Programs should be intensive and behavioral in nature

Programs should target known predictors of crime

Behavioral programs will use standardized assessments to identify the risk level, need level, and responsivity issues of offenders

Programs should match the characteristics of the offender, therapists, and program

Program contingencies and behavioral strategies should be enforced in a firmbut fair manner

Programs should have well-qualified and well-trained staff who can relate to the offenders

Programs should provide relapse prevention strategies

Programs should adhere to a high degree of advocacy and brokerage with other agencies in the community

Andrews & Gendreau, 1994, 1996

the shack wm paul young
“The Shack” Wm. Paul Young

“Paradigms power perception and perceptions power emotions. Most emotions are responses to perception – what you think is true about a given situation. If your perception is false, then your emotional response to it will be false too. So check your perceptions, and beyond that check the truthfulness of your paradigms - what you believe. Just because you believe something firmly doesn’t make it true. Be willing to reexamine what you believe. The more you live in the truth, the more your emotions will help you see clearly.”

bridging the gap
Bridging the Gap

Integrated correctional interventions should be based on three principles and practices:

Our society’s determination to enforce social limits and enforce the law

Extension of a genuine opportunity to change

Respect for the offenders capacity to make their own choices

bridging the gap1
Bridging the Gap

Opportunity to change (i.e., treatment) without authority and accountability (i.e., security) enables offenders to dodge responsibility

Accountability and punishment (i.e., security) without realistic opportunity to change (i.e., treatment) and re-join society is oppression and injustice

shift happens
Shift Happens

Correctional change must include a change in the offenders fundamental values, beliefs and perception of authority, rules and accountability

Public policy should be research informed and support clearly defined goals to facilitate criminal desistance using a combination of sanctions/punishments and treatment

shift happens1
Shift Happens

A mutual understanding and respect for correctional and treatment paradigms is necessary to effect a synergistic pro-social behavioral change culture

“Check your perceptions, and beyond that check the truthfulness of your paradigms - what you believe. Just because you believe something firmly doesn’t make it true.”

leading change
Leading Change

“After all is said and done there is no such thing as managing change. You lead change or you follow it.”

Peter Drucker