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Ancient Philosophers. A Study-Guide. Click on a group of philosophers to learn more!. Pre-Socratics. Thales Anaximenes Anaximander Heraclitus. Thales. Believes God is just and expects men to behave justly World originates from water Attributed natural phenomena to gods

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pre socratics
Pre-Socratics
  • Thales
  • Anaximenes
  • Anaximander
  • Heraclitus
thales
Thales
  • Believes God is just and expects men to behave justly
  • World originates from water
  • Attributed natural phenomena to gods
  • Fire, for example, is moved to hotness by the daemon of fire
anaximenes
Anaximenes
  • Air is the source of all existence
  • Everything is air, at different degrees of density
  • Condensations of air produced the sun and stars
anaximander
Anaximander
  • Believes in the Apeiron, an unlimited primordial mass
  • This concept is the source of everything that can be perceived
  • It embraced the opposites of hot and cold, wet and dry
heraclitus
Heraclitus
  • Disagreed with the other pre-Socratic philosophers
  • Claimed that the nature of everything is change itself
  • Believed in the unity of opposites: Good and bad are equals
the great masters
The Great Masters
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
socrates
Socrates
  • Believed in virtue; that men should focus on self-development and not personal wealth
  • Discusses reincarnation
  • Learning is a process of recalling “innate knowledge”
plato
Plato
  • Wrote dialogues featuring Socrates as a central character
  • It is unknown how much of his writing is Socrates’ point-of-view and how much is his own
  • Discusses democracy
aristotle
Aristotle
  • Student of Plato
  • Five elements: Fire, water, earth, air, and aether (divine substance)
  • Focused on finding the mean between two extremes
  • True virtue is found in the mean
epicureans
Epicureans
  • Epicurus
  • Philodemus
  • Lucretius
epicurus
Epicurus
  • All good and bad are derived from sensations of pleasure and pain
  • Death is not to be feared
  • When we die, we no longer exist and we feel nothing
  • Advocated living in seclusion
philodemus
Philodemus
  • Claims that anger is natural
  • The trick is to express or handle one’s anger
  • Anger and hunger are both inevitable
lucretius
Lucretius
  • Against superstition and fear of the gods
  • Death is the dissipation of a man’s material mind
  • Value of life is something that only matters during life
stoics
Stoics
  • Epictetus
  • Zeno
  • Marcus Aurelius
epictetus
Epictetus
  • Held that our aim was to be masters of our own lives
  • Eudaimonia (happiness or flourishing
  • Eudaimonia is achieved by living virtuously, in accordance with reason
slide18
Zeno
  • Emphasized self-control and detachment from emotions
  • Overcome the outside world and find peace with one’s self
  • Regarded society as unruly and unreasonable
marcus aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
  • Did not believe in the afterlife
  • Even legends will fade into oblivion
  • Death is desirable, because it brings an end to all desires