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Chapter Seven

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  1. Chapter Seven Addictive Behaviors, Licit and Illicit Drugs

  2. The Process of Addiction • Addictive behavior has some common aspects • Reinforcement: physical and psychological with regards to pleasure or reduction of negative ones • Compulsion: time, energy, and money are spent to pursue the behavior. Normal behavior has already degenerated • Loss of Control: addicted people lose the ability to control their behavior and results in addiction to more than one drug or behavior • Escalation: more of the substance is required over time to produce the desired effects • Negative Consequences: the behaviors continues, regardless of the outcomes

  3. Development of Addiction • There is no single cause of addiction, however, the following factors can play a role with this development • Characteristics of the person: difficulties dealing with stress, impulse control; risk taker • Environment of where the person lives • Heredity • Nature of the substance or behavior in question

  4. Examples of Addictive Behaviors • Compulsive or Pathological Gambling • Compulsive Spending or Shopping • Internet/On-line Gaming • Video Gaming • TV • Work • Sex • Exercise • Substance

  5. What is a Drug? • Substance, other than food, that alters structure or function in a living organism • psychoactive drug – alters the mind (feelings, behaviors, mood)

  6. What is Drug Abuse? • Substance Abuse involves one or more of the following: • Recurrent drug use, resulting in a failure to fulfill major responsibilities • Recurrent drug use in situations in which it is physically hazardous • Recurrent drug-related legal problems • Continued drug use despite persistent social or inter-personal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the drug

  7. Drug Dependence • Seven specific criteria the APA uses to diagnose substance dependence • Developing tolerance to the substance • Experiencing withdrawal • Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended • Expressing a persistent desire to cut down or regulate substance use

  8. Drug Dependence 5. Spending a great deal of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from its effects 6. Giving up or reducing important social, school, work, or recreational activities because of abuse 7. Continuing to use the substance in spite of recognizing that it is a problem

  9. Who Uses Drugs? • The use and abuse of drugs occur at all income and educational levels, among ethnic groups, and at all ages • There are no clear prediction methods for potential drug users, however, the following characteristics do place people in higher risk for trying illicit drugs: • Being male, Poor self image • Risk taking personality • Peer or family group that partakes in this behavior • Dysfunctional or chaotic lifestyle at home

  10. Curiosity Imitation of adults (modeling) Spiritual experience Alter moods Remove emotional pain (coping mechanism) Provide a temporary escape Peer pressure Why Do People Use Drugs?

  11. Stimulant Depressant Hallucinogen Cannabis Narcotic (Opiates) Inhalant Six Classifications of Psychoactive Drugs

  12. Narcotics (Opiates) • Examples: • opium, morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, meperidine, fentanyl • Short term Effects: • relieves pain, euphoria, reduces anxiety, produces lethargy • Methods: • injected, swallowed, snorted, smoked

  13. Narcotics • Abuse of prescription pain relievers: • OxyContin & Vicodin • Quick tolerance build-up/ High dependence • Serious withdrawal symptoms

  14. Depressants (Sedatives/Hypnotics) • Examples: • barbiturates, • benzodiazepines: Xanax, Valium, Librium, Klonopin, Rohypnol, Qualade, Placidyl, “Mickey”, GHB or “liquid ecstacy”, • alcohol, • tranquilizers

  15. Depressants • Short Term Effects: • slows down the CNS, causes drowsiness, loss of consciousness • Method: • swallowed, injected • High dependence qualities

  16. Stimulants • Short Term Effects: • elevates sensory function of the CNS, nervousness, insomnia, impulsive behavior, dilated pupils • Long Term Damage: • addiction, hyperactive behavior, depression, aggressiveness, stomach, liver, respiratory damage, paranoid psychosis

  17. Stimulants • Examples: • cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, caffeine, ritalin • Method: • injected, smoked, swallowed, snorted • Dependency: Very High

  18. Binge-Abuse Cycle • Rush (5 - 30min.) • Intense pleasure • High (4 -16 hrs.) • Power/Aggressiveness • Binge (3 - 15days) • Physical/Mental Hyperactivity • Tweaking (3 - 15days) • Irritable/Paranoid, Insomnia, Lack of Satisfaction

  19. Binge-Abuse Cycle • Crash (1- 3days) • Total exhaustion • Almost Normal (2 – 14 days) • Doesn’t last • Withdrawal (30 – 90 days) • Deep depression, intense drug cravings, irritability, loss of energy, nausea, sweating, suicidal tendencies

  20. Cannabis • Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States • Active ingredient: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • Short Term Effects: • Euphoria, confusion, slowed reaction & thinking, impaired balance & coordination, increased heart rate, increased appetite, red/blood shot eyes, dry lips & mouth

  21. Cannabis • Long Term Damage: • Wrecked brain cells, respiratory damage-cancer, emphysema, lower sperm counts & testosterone, irregular menstrual/ovulation cycles • Smoking 5 joints a week exposes to as many carcinogens as smoking a pack of cigarettes every day for a week! • Examples: • hashish, marijuana • (Caution: It varies in strength & composition - can be sprayed with rat poison, weed killer, oven cleaner, PCP/Angel Dust!!!!

  22. Hallucinogens • Examples: • LSD, PCP(Angel Dust), peyote, Ecstasy(MDMA), Ketamine • Short Term Effects: • altered state of perception; synesthesia (body-mind separation); increased heart rate, blood pressure; delirium; impaired motor function; numbness, weakness

  23. Hallucinogens • Long Term Effects: • panic attacks, psychological distortions, flashbacks • Method: • swallowed, smoked, injected, snorted

  24. Club/Rave Drugs • Ecstasy • Hallucinogen with extreme risk for dehydration/hyperthermia, heart failure, kidney failure, death – brain damage • Rohypnol • Depressant used for date rape/sexual assault causing amnesia and can result in coma and death especially when combined with alcohol • Ketamine • Hallucinogen creating synesthesia, convulsions/coma or death; causes psychological addiction & problems with memory/learning

  25. GHB • Depressant also associated with date rape/sexual assault causing amnesia, unconsciousness, coma, death • LSD • Hallucinogen creating numbness, magnified emotions & heightened sensations • Meth • Stimulant growing in use and abuse with extreme addictive powers resulting in aggressive and psychotic behaviors

  26. Party Smart Tips • Do not accept drinks for people you don’t know and trust! • Never leave your drink unattended! • If your drink tastes salty or soapy, throw it out! • Don’t drink from open containers like punch bowls, bong bags, etc.! • Listen for the “fizz” on twist-off bottles . . . Don’t drink if it doesn’t “fizz”! • Be suspicious of eye droppers and small bottles! • Use the buddy system!

  27. Inhalants • Tends to be the highest among younger adolescents • Effects: volatile chemicals producing drunk-like effects or aggression • Examples: gasoline, paint, aerosol cans, glues

  28. Drugs, Society, and Families • Americans spend over 50 billion annually on illegal drugs • The criminal justice system is inundated with drug related crimes • Healthcare issues are involved with drug use with regards to hospital visits, treatment programs, and deaths • Drug abuse takes a toll on families, creating long term health problems, unemployment, and neglect

  29. Drug Testing • It is estimated that 10% of the workforce use psychoactive drugs • Dangers are great in specific job assignments that all workers should be tested regularly • Most drug tests involve a urine test • Due to the accuracy of tests improving over the years, there are fewer opportunities to cheat or to yield false results • The FDA now has approved home kits for parents to check their children for drug use

  30. Treatment For Drug Dependence • Community programs • Hospital facilities • Private facilities • Self-help groups/Peer counseling • Medication assisted treatment

  31. Other Drug Terminology • Dependence: • refers to the need to continue using a drug for psychological or physical reasons • Withdrawal illness: • toxic response of the body as it attempts to regain control (abstinence syndrome) • Tolerance: • acquired reaction to a drug in which the continued intake has diminished effect

  32. Codependence • Applies to those who are close to the individual who is addicted to something • Focused upon protecting or coping with the addict • Lose their sense of identity due to becoming unaware of their own feelings

  33. What is the MOST dangerous drug? The drug you want theMOST!

  34. Website Resources • Center for On-Line Addiction. • ClubDrugs.Org. • Do It Now Foundation. • Drug Enforcement Administration • Gamblers Anonymous. • Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention

  35. Indiana Prevention Resource Center. • Narcotics Anonymous • Cocaine Anonymous • Marijuana Anonymous • National Clearinghouse for Alcohol & Drug Information. • National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  36. • • • • • • • • 800-662-HELP • 800-729-6686 (Spanish)