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Georgia and the American Experience. Chapter 10: The Progressive Era Study Presentation . ©2005 Clairmont Press. Georgia and the American Experience. Section 1: The Progressive Movement Section 2: Southern Politics in Action Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights

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georgia and the american experience
Georgia and the American Experience

Chapter 10:

The Progressive Era

Study Presentation

©2005 Clairmont Press

georgia and the american experience1
Georgia and the American Experience

Section 1: The Progressive Movement

Section 2: Southern Politics in Action

Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights

Section 4: Business in Georgia

Section 5: World War I

©2005 Clairmont Press

section 1 the progressive movement
Section 1: The Progressive Movement
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
    • What changes were goals of the progressive movement?
section 1 the progressive movement1
Section 1: The Progressive Movement
  • What words do I needtoknow?
    • progressive movement
    • muckraker
    • chain gang
    • labor union
    • strike
    • sweatshop
    • prohibition
    • 18th & 19th Amendments
    • suffragette
prison reform
Prison Reform
  • 1908: end of convict lease system
  • Work camps and chain gangs replaced the lease system
    • Black-and-white uniforms
    • Chained together
    • Poor food & housing
    • No preparation for life after prison
  • Progressive legislators created the Juvenile Court System
labor unions
Labor Unions
  • Low wages in factories (10¢ per hour)
  • Labor Unions organized workers
    • Strikes could halt work in the factory
    • AFL – American Federation of Labor
  • Georgians didn’t support unions – factories were often in small communities where people knew each other
  • Mill towns: factory owner owned the workers’ houses – workers feared losing their homes
child labor laws
Child Labor Laws
  • Progressives increased regulation to protect child laborers
    • Minimum wage
    • Compulsory school attendance laws
    • Laws protecting children against work in dangerous places and using dangerous equipment (for example: mines)
    • In Georgia, most child workers in cotton fields or textile factories
    • In the North, child workers were in “sweatshops”
temperance movement
Temperance Movement
  • WCTU: Women’s Christian Temperance Movement – wanted to end production and use of alcoholic beverages
  • Carrie Nation – famous for raiding saloons with a hatchet and making speeches against alcohol
  • Progressives in Georgia restricted alcohol sales near schools and churches, and allowed counties to vote to be “wet” or “dry”
  • 1919: 18th Amendment banned manufacture, sale, transport of alcoholic beverages in USA
women s suffrage
Women’s Suffrage
  • Suffrage: the right to vote
  • Seneca Falls, NY – famous meeting of suffragettes
  • 1920: 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote – Georgia did not ratify (approve) the amendment

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 2 southern politics in action
Section 2: Southern Politics in Action
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
    • What were the goals of the populists in Georgia?
section 2 southern politics in action1
Section 2: Southern Politics in Action
  • What words do I need to know?
    • Populist party
    • Australian ballot
    • Rural Free Delivery bill
    • poll
    • Smith-Lever Act
    • Agricultural Extension Service
    • Smith-Hughes Act
    • county unit system
    • plurality
the people s party
The People’s Party
  • Populism: political idea that supported the rights of the “common” people in their struggle with the wealthy people
  • Poor farmers and low wage workers were followers of Populists
  • Grange and Farmer’s Alliance worked to protect farmers’ rights – joined with unions to create People’s Party
  • Wanted “Australian ballot” – printed by the government, not local political parties, then collected and locked in ballot boxes
  • Tom Watson, famous Georgia populist, worked for Rural Free Delivery bill to deliver mail to rural areas for free
georgia s progressive era governors
Georgia’s Progressive Era Governors
  • Hoke Smith: worked to concentrate political power in the rural counties instead of larger counties and cities
    • white supremacist
    • led passage of law requiring land ownership before a person could vote – excluded many blacks
    • better funding of public schools
    • child labor laws passed
    • Smith-Lever Act (1914): created Agricultural Extension Service to teach improved farming methods
    • Smith-Hughes Act: helped establish vocational schools for youth
  • “Little Joe” Brown: son of Civil War era governor Joseph E. Brown
the county unit system
The County Unit System
  • 1917: Neil Primary Act created “county unit system”
  • Plan designed to give small counties more power in state government
  • Smaller counties had more county unit “votes” even though they had fewer voters
  • People could be elected to office without getting a majority of votes
  • Declared unconstitutional in 1962

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 3 the continuing fight for civil rights
Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
    • In what ways did Georgians fight for civil rights during the progressive era?
section 3 the continuing fight for civil rights1
Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights
  • What words do I need to know?
    • civil rights
    • Jim Crow laws
    • injunction
    • Atlanta Compromise speech
    • lynching
    • Back-to-Africa movement
    • grandfather clause
    • poll tax
    • gerrymander
    • martial law
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    • National Urban League
section 3 the continuing fight for civil rights2
Section 3: The Continuing Fight for Civil Rights
  • What people do I need to know?
    • Booker T. Washington
    • W.E.B. DuBois
    • John & Lugenia Burns Hope
    • Leo Frank
separate but equal
Separate But Equal
  • Civil Rights: rights a person has as a citizen
  • “Jim Crow” laws passed to separate blacks and whites
  • Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court decision which approved Jim Crow laws – decision in place until 1954
  • Cummings V. Richmond County Board of Education: Supreme Court decision supporting segregated schools in Georgia
booker t washington
Booker T. Washington
  • Outstanding civil rights leader of the era
  • President of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
  • Supported good relations between blacks and whites
  • Worked to improve the lives of African Americans through economic independence
  • Believed social and political equality would come with improved economic conditions and education
  • Famous “Atlanta Compromise” speech (1895)
w e b dubois
W. E. B. DuBois
  • Professor at Atlanta University
  • Believed in “action” if African Americans and whites were to understand and accept each other
  • Thought Booker T. Washington was too accepting of social injustice
john hope
John Hope
  • Civil rights leader from Augusta, GA
  • President of Atlanta University
  • Like DuBois, believed that African Americans should actively work for equality
  • Part of group that organized NAACP
  • Hope’s wife, Lugenia, worked to improve sanitation, roads, healthcare and education for African American neighborhoods in Atlanta
a loss of voting rights
A Loss of Voting Rights
  • Laws created to keep African Americans in Georgia from voting
    • Grandfather clause: only those men whose fathers or grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1867 could vote
    • Poll tax: a tax paid to vote
    • Voters had to own property
    • Voters had to pass a literacy test (which was determined by the poll worker and could be different for different people)
    • Gerrymandering: election districts drawn up to divide the African American voters
race riots in atlanta
Race Riots in Atlanta
  • 1906: various leaders and newspapers created a climate of anger and fear
  • Two-day riot began with over 5,000 people
  • Martial law: military forces used to control civilians
  • 21 people killed; hundreds wounded
  • Lots of property damage
african americans organize
African Americans Organize
  • NAACP (1909): worked for the rights of African Americans
  • W.E.B. DuBois left Atlanta to work for the NAACP in New York
  • National Urban League formed in 1910
    • Worked to solve social problems of African Americans in cities
    • Assisted people moving from rural South to urban North
the trial of leo frank
The Trial of Leo Frank
  • 1913: man accused of killing a 14-year-old employee, Mary Phagan in Atlanta
  • Mr. Frank was a Jewish man from New York
  • Little evidence against Mr. Frank, but he was convicted and sentenced to death
  • Governor Slaton changed death sentence to life imprisonment
  • Armed men took Frank from the prison, and he was lynched
  • White supremacist Ku Klux Klan reborn as a result

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 4 business in georgia
Section 4: Business in Georgia
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
    • How did Georgia businesses grow during the progressive era?
section 4 business in georgia1
Section 4: Business in Georgia
  • What words do I need to know?
    • scrip
section 4 business in georgia2
Section 4: Business in Georgia
  • What people do I need to know?
    • Alonzo Herndon
    • Asa Candler
    • Morris Rich
business in georgia
Business in Georgia
  • 1895: Cotton States and International Exposition
    • 800,000 visitors in three months
    • designed to show economic recovery in the South
    • encouraged investments in southern businesses
rich s
Rich’s
  • Famous Atlanta department store
  • Started in 1867 by Morris Rich
  • Known as a store “with heart”
    • took farmers’ produce in payment
    • took teachers’ scrip as money during the Great Depression
  • Grew to be a regional shopping chain
coca cola
Coca-Cola
  • Invented in Atlanta in 1885 by John S. Pemberton as tonic
  • Business purchased and expanded by Asa Candler
  • Sold company in 1919 for $25 million
  • Robert Woodruff grew company to billions of dollars in sales each year
  • Woodruff and Candler generous givers to worthy causes
atlanta mutual insurance company
Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company
  • Alonzo Herndon started barber business
  • 1905: Purchased small insurance company and managed it well
  • Now one of the largest African American businesses in the US
  • Worth over $200 million and operates in 17 states

Click to return to Table of Contents.

section 5 world war i
Section 5: World War I
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
    • How did Georgians contribute to World War I?
section 5 world war i1
Section 5: World War I
  • What words do I need to know?
    • World War I
    • neutral
    • propaganda
    • armistice
world war i 1914 1918
World War I1914-1918

President Woodrow Wilson declared the US would be a neutral country.

eugene jacques bullard
Eugene Jacques Bullard
  • First black African American combat pilot – from Columbus, GA
  • Enlisted in French Foreign Legion: 1914
  • Flew combat missions against Germany
  • US Army Air Force refused his services
the united states enters the war
The United States Enters the War
  • President Wilson worked to keep the US out of the war
  • 1915: German submarine sank passenger ship Lusitania killing 128 Americans
  • 1917: sub attacks resumed sinking American ships
  • Zimmerman telegram: Germany tried to get Mexico to attack the US
  • Wilson finally joined the Allied powers
georgia and world war i
Georgia and World War I
  • ±100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US armed forces
  • Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort McPherson, and Camp Gordon helped Georgia economy
  • Georgians contributed manufactured goods and farm produce
  • 3,000 young Georgians killed in the war
  • Ended November 11, 1918
atlanta fire
Atlanta Fire
  • May 21, 1917
  • Lasted 10-12 hours
  • Seventy city blocks destroyed
  • 6,000-10,000 people left homeless

Click to return to Table of Contents.