Presentation Outline • Basic concepts of Bio-molecules • Origin of BiomolecularComputing • Solution for NP-Complete Problems • Advantages of DNA Computing • Problems with Adleman’s Experiment • DNA Computers • Current research • Conclusion
What is DNA? • DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid • DNA represents the genetic blueprint of living creatures • DNA contains “instructions” for assembling cells • Every cell in human body has a complete set of DNA • DNA is unique for each individual
Double Helix shape of DNA • The two strands of a DNA molecule are anti parallel where each strand runs in an opposite direction. • Complementary base pairs Adenine & Thymine Guanine & Cytosine • Two strands are held together by weak hydrogen bonds between the complementary base pairs
……… Instructions in DNA Sequence to indicate the start of an instruction Instruction that triggers Hormone injection Instruction for hair cells • Instructions are coded in a sequence of the DNA bases • A segment of DNA is exposed, transcribed and translated to carry out instructions
Basics and Origin of DNA Computing • DNA computing is utilizing the property of DNA for massively parallel computation. • With an appropriate setup and enough DNA, one can potentially solve huge problems by parallel search. • Utilizing DNA for this type of computation can be much faster than utilizing a conventional computer • Leonard Adleman proposed that the makeup of DNA and its multitude of possible combining nucleotides could have application in computational research techniques
Dense Information Storage • This image shows 1 gram of DNA on a CD. The CD can hold 800 MB of data. • The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x1014 MB of data. • With bases spaced at 0.35 nm along DNA, data density is over a million Gbits/inch compared to 7 Gbits/inch in typical high performance HDD.
How Dense is the Information Storage? • Check this out……….. 1 gram = 4x10 21
How enormous is the parallelism? • A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel ! • Check this out……. We Typically use 3 x1014
Steps for Adleman’s Experiment • Strands of DNA represent the seven cities. In genes, genetic coding is represented by the letters A, T, C and G. Some sequence of these four letters represented each city and possible flight path. • These molecules are then mixed in a test tube, with some of these DNA strands sticking together. A chain of these strands represents a possible answer. • Within a few seconds, all of the possible combinations of DNA strands, which represent answers, are created in the test tube.
Adleman’s Experiment • Hamilton Path Problem(also known as the travelling salesperson problem) DELHI BOMBAY TVM KOLLAM CHENNAI BGLRE Is there any Hamiltonian path from KOLLAM to DELHI?
Subsequently logic gates can be employed using DNA. • Logic gates made up of DNA, instead of using electrical signals to perform logical functions, rely on DNA code. • They detect fragments of genetic material as input, splice together these fragments and form a single output. • The researchers believe that these logic gates might be combined with DNA microchips to create a breakthrough in DNA computing.
Operations • Meltingbreaking the weak hydrogen bonds in a double helix to form two DNA strands which are complement to each other • Annealingreconnecting the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA strands
Operations (Cont’d) • Mergingmixing two test tubes with many DNA molecules • AmplificationDNA replication to make many copies of the original DNA molecules • Selectionelimination of errors (e.g. mutations) and selection of correct DNA molecules
Advantages of a DNA Computer • Parallel Computing • Incredibly light weight • Low power • Solves Complex Problems quickly • Millions of operations simultaneously • Generate potential solutions • Efficiently handle massive amounts of working memory
EDNA • EDNA is object oriented and extensible, so that it can easily evolve as the field progresses. • EDNA is therefore a research tool that makes it possible to use the advantages of conventional computing to make DNA computing reliable. • EDNA includes graphical interfaces and click-and-drag facilities to enable easy use.
DNA Authentication • Taiwan introduced the world's first DNA authentication chip. • Use of DNA chips on national identification cards in order to crack down on frauds using fake ID cards. • The synthesized DNA inside the chip generates DNA signals which only the company's readers can detect and authenticate in two seconds.
What developments can we expect? • Increased use of molecules other than DNA • Some impact on molecular biology by DNA computation • Increased error avoidance and detection • Cross-fertilization among DNA computing, molecular biology, and computation biology • Niche uses of DNA computers for problems that are difficult for electronic computers
THANK YOU!!! It will take years to develop a practical, workable DNA computer. But…Let’s all hope that this DREAM comes true!!! Done By… http://engineering-seminar-topics.blogspot.com/
THANKS To… • Mr. Peter Pradeep (HOD) • Mrs. Sarika G (Sem.Guide) • Kasturi E.S(Sem. Co.ord.) • All Staffs & Students