Attachment in Mental Health and Therapy. A BRIEF ADOLESCENT ENCOUNTER WITH JIM CAIRNS. BOWLBY. Proximity seeking as primary drive Secure base Internal Working Model to replace structural theories
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- Unresolved (for Loss or Trauma)
Comfortable in relationship settings. Readily contribute to interdependent relationships as a springboard for engaging in the wider world.
Less distressed by interpersonal conflict. Able to engage in productive, task-oriented conflict.
Less preoccupied with the need to elicit positive regard from others or the need to avoid closeness with others.
Desire closeness but become anxiously preoccupied by how others regard them. This can limit their ability to explore the outside world, other relationships or even work and hobbies.
Their ability to develop interdependent and cooperative relationships can also be limited.
Have a need for experiencing acknowledgement, praise, being valued, acceptance, support and being included.
On the other hand, can tend to dislike intrusiveness by others and can mistrust positive relatedness as phony or unreliable. (ambivalence)
Compulsively self-reliant, dismissing needs for closeness for selves and others.
May naturally engage in negative or unproductive conflict.
Efforts to develop inter-dependant relationships at work and in community compromised by the need to avoid group intimacy.
Likely to interpret efforts for closeness by others as intrusive and demanding.
“We’re all individuals” (Brian)
The act of reflecting on one’s own mental representations of self and other (and associated feelings); AND – at the same time – being able to reflect upon the other person’s mental representations, feelings, and intentions.
Moreover, it involves perceiving the connection between one’s mental state and that of the other person.
- do not join in their distress
- recognise their intentional stance
This involves exquisite synchronisation of facial expressions, mirroring of emotions and anticipation of each other’s intentions.
“Mirror neurones” (Johnson, 2009; Rothchild 2000) allow each person to know the other from the inside out through associated stimulation of the autonomic nervous systems.
Oxytocin is released creating a cascade of pleasurable and comforting body experiences.
“Each person’s mind and emotion are attuned to the other’s. Each person knows the other’s mind and recursively knows that he or she exists in this mind.”(Johnson, 2009,p273)
- validate their intentional stance
Supporting Mentalizing when it is at risk, reinstating mentalizing when it is lost.