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Indirect Statement Part I. LFA I Lesson 59 2012-2013. Direct vs. Indirect. A “direct statement” quotes the exact words of a speaker, and uses quotation marks. Dicit , “ Pueri pugnant !” He says, “The boys are fighting!”. Pueri pugnant !. Direct vs. Indirect Statement.

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indirect statement part i

Indirect StatementPart I

LFA I Lesson 59

2012-2013

direct vs indirect
Direct vs. Indirect
  • A “direct statement” quotes the exact words of a speaker, and uses quotation marks.
  • Dicit, “Pueripugnant!”
  • He says, “The boys are fighting!”

Pueripugnant!

direct vs indirect statement
Direct vs. Indirect Statement
  • Indirect statement just reports the words of another person.
  • Dicitpuerospugnare.
  • He says (that) the boys are fighting.

Dicitpuerospugnare.

Pueripugnant!

direct vs indirect statement1
Direct vs. Indirect Statement
  • For indirect statement, Latin converts the form of the direct statement’s verb into an infinitive, and its subject from the nominative to the accusative case.
  • The indirect statement is considered the object of the main verb.

Dicitpuerospugnare.

Pueripugnant!

tenses of indirect statement
Tenses of Indirect Statement
  • There are 3 tenses of infinitives, and each tense is used to show when the indirect statement is happening:
    • Present infinitive: indirect statement happens at the same time as the main verb
    • Perfect infinitive: indirect statement happens before the main verb
    • Future infinitive: indirect statement happens after the main verb
examples of infinitive tenses
Examples of Infinitive Tenses
  • He says the boys are fighting.
  • Dicitpuerospugnare.
  • He says the boys were fighting.
  • Dicitpuerospugnavisse.
  • He says the boys will fight.
  • Dicitpuerospugnaturosesse.
important words to remember
Important Words to Remember
  • “esse” is the infinitive of “to be” and is often used in indirect statement:
  • Dicuntpuerumessefortem.
  • They say the boy is brave.
  • “Intro” words for indirect statement include puto (think), dico (say), scio (know), sentio (feel), spero (hope), and others.
try these sentences all the main first verbs are present tense
Try these sentences!All the main (first) verbs are present tense. 
  • Dicuntpuellamessepulchram.
  • Putamusmagistramessesapientem.
  • Puerscitpatriamessemagnam.
  • Dicit servos fugisse.
  • Dicit servos fugiturosesse.
  • We think the girl is carrying water. 
sequence of tenses
Sequence of Tenses
  • Review: there are 3 tenses of infinitives, and each tense is used to show when the indirect statement is happening:
    • Present infinitive: indirect statement happens at the same time asthe main verb
    • Perfect infinitive: indirect statement happens beforethe main verb
    • Future infinitive: indirect statement happens afterthe main verb
sequence of tenses time to get your logic on
Sequence of Tenses…Time To Get Your Logic On
  • The translation of the infinitive is dependent on the tense of the main verb.
  • Dicitpuerospugnare.
  • Main verb: present tense
  • Infinitive: present tense
  • Present tense infinitive=happens at the same time as the main verb.
  • Therefore: the infinitive is also translated presently. He says that the boys are fighting.
sequence of tenses time to get your logic on1
Sequence of Tenses…Time To Get Your Logic On
  • The translation of the infinitive is dependent on the tense of the main verb.
  • Dixitpuerospugnare.
  • Main verb: past tense (perfect tense)
  • Infinitive: present tense
  • Present tense infinitive=happens at the same time as the main verb.
  • Therefore: the infinitive is also translated past-ly. He said that the boys were fighting.
sequence of tenses time to get your logic on2
Sequence of Tenses…Time To Get Your Logic On
  • The translation of the infinitive is dependent on the tense of the main verb.
  • Dicetpuerospugnare.
  • Main verb: future tense
  • Infinitive: present tense
  • Present tense infinitive=happens at the same time as the main verb.
  • Therefore: the infinitive is also translated future-ly. He will say that the boys are fighting.
  • ***You don’t need to say “will fight” b/c the future is already implied by the English here.
try these sentences all the infinitives are present tense same time as main verb
Try these sentences!All the infinitives are present tense=same time as main verb. 
  • Dixit puellasaquamportare.
  • Dicitpuellasaquamportare.
  • Dicetpuellasaquamportare.
  • Virputat servos fugere.
  • Virputabat servos fugere.
  • Virputabit servos fugere.
sequence of tenses time to get your logic on3
Sequence of Tenses…Time To Get Your Logic On
  • The translation of the infinitive is dependent on the tense of the main verb.
  • Dixitpuerospugnavisse.
  • Main verb: perfect tense
  • Infinitive: perfect tense
  • Perfect tense infinitive=happens before the main verb.
  • Therefore: the infinitive is translated pluperfectly (past-past). He said that the boys had fought.
sequence of tenses time to get your logic on4
Sequence of Tenses…Time To Get Your Logic On
  • The translation of the infinitive is dependent on the tense of the main verb.
  • Dixitpuerospugnaturosesse.
  • Main verb: perfect tense
  • Infinitive: future tense
  • Future tense infinitive=happens after the main verb.
  • Therefore: the infinitive is translated “would”: He said that the boys would fight.
try these sentences
Try these sentences!
  • Dixit puellasaquamportavisse.
  • Dicitpuellasaquamportaturasesse.
  • Dixit puellasaquamportare.
  • Virputat servos fugisse.
  • Virputabat servos fugisse.
  • Virputabit servos fugituruosesse.
slide18

invenisse

  • amitti
  • amissurusesse
  • invenire
  • amissus
  • amisisse
  • inventurusesse
  • inveniri
  • amittere
  • inventusesse
  • to be about to lose
  • to have been lost
  • to find
  • to have found
  • to be found
  • to have lost
  • to lose
  • to be about to find
  • to be lost
  • to have been found