Living things depend on eachother.. • Like all living things. You depend on plants and animals around you to meet your needs. You eat plants and animal products. You may live in a building made form wood, you wear clothes made from plants. Plants and animals depend on one another to help them meet their needs.
Living Things and Food • All living things needs food. Living things get their food in many ways. For example a shark catches its food with its sharp teeth. A bird uses its beak to get food. Plants make their own food. • Plants and animals work together with the environment to get what they need.
All plants and animals need food which provides the energy they need to live. • Green plants make their own food. They use the energy from the sun to make their own food. Some of this food is used, and some is stored in the roots, stems, and leaves. • Plants are called producers (they make/produce their own food by photosynthesis.) • Animals cannot make their own food. Animals get their energy and biomass by consuming (eating) other organisms. All animals are consumers ( they consume/eat)
What is a Food Chain????? • All living things need food to give them the energy to grow and move. A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. It shows who is eating who. Grass Grasshopper Toad Snake Hawk
How does it work?? • A food chain always starts with a green plant (All plants are PRODUCERS.) • ...... which is eaten by an animal. ( All the animals in a food chain are CONSUMERS) • A food chain ends with a predator. (The predator is at the top of the food chain) • The Sun is very important for all living things, without the sun the plants would not grow, without plants there would be no animals • http://www.pbs.org/edens/etosha/fm_foodchain.htm
Some Examples… • http://www.crickweb.co.uk/assets/resources/flash.php?&file=foodchains • http://puzzling.caret.cam.ac.uk/game.php?game=foodchain • http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/kids/animals-pets-kids/invertebrates-kids/krill-kids.html
What is the difference betweena food web and a food chain? • A food web consists of many food chains. • A food chain only follows just one path as animals find food. eg: A hawk eats a snake, which has eaten a frog, which has eaten a grasshopper, which has eaten grass. A food web shows the many different paths plants and animals are connected. eg: A hawk might also eat a mouse, a squirrel, a frog or some other animal. The snake may eat a beetle, a caterpillar, or some other animal. And so on for all the other animals in the food chain. • A food web is several food chains connected together
Vocabulary • Herbivore - an animal that eats plants. • Carnivore - an animal that eats other animals. • Omnivore - an animal that eats both plants and animals eg bears and humans. • Producer - usually a green plant that produces its own food by photosynthesis • Primary Consumer - Animals that consume only plant matter. They are herbivores - eg rabbits, caterpillars, cows, sheep, and deer • Secondary Consumer - Animals that eat primary consumers (herbivores). • Tertiary Consumer - Animals that eat secondary consumers i.e. carnivores that feed on other carnivores.
Vocabulary • Predators - kill for food. They are either secondary or tertiary consumers - eg polar bears, golden eagles • Prey - are the organisms that predators feed on. Examples of predator and prey species are: fox and rabbit; blue tit and caterpillar; wolf and lamb • Scavenger - a consumer that eats dead animals (e.g. crab, crow, vulture, buzzard and hyena. ) • Food Web - a network of interrelated food chains in a given area
Let’s Make a Food Chain! • http://www.ecokids.ca/pub/eco_info/topics/frogs/chain_reaction/play_chainreaction.cfm
Animal Inheritance • Jellyfish, polar bears, and snakes don’t look much alike, but they are all animals. Different animals have different shapes and sizes. They also have many different body parts. For example, a bird has wings and feathers. A lion has paws and fur. All these features are important to the way an animal lives.
Animal Inheritance • Howdo animals get their features? Young animals inherit their features from their parents. INHERIT means “to receive from parents.” Thebody features an animal inherits are called traits. • An animal can also inherit behavioral traits (not all). Behavioral traits • include actions like nest-building, migrating, or swimming. • What are some of the physical and behavioral traits that cats/dogs inherit from their parents? • Challenge: What are common traits of mammals? • (Mammals have fur or hair, use lungs to breathe, usually give birth, feed their young with milk made by their mother’s body)
Classifying Animals The different types of animals: • 1) Mammals • 2) Birds • 3)Amphibians • 4) Fish • 5) Reptiles
Classification: Mammals • Mammals: • Animals that have fur/hair. Examples: Horses, cows, • and dogs • Mammals use lungs to breathe. Whales use lungs to breathe, but must come to the surface of the water to breathe the air they need. • Most mammals give birth to their young. (A cat gives birth to kittens) • Mammals feed their young with milk • What are the four traits mammals inherit from their parents? • (fur/hair, lungs, gives birth, feed their young with milk)
Classification: Birds • Birds are animals that have feathers, two legs, and wings. • Most birds use their wings for flying. Some birds cannot fly, such • as penguins. • Like mammals, birds have lungs to breathe air. Many birds also • care for their young when they are born. Unlike most young • mammals, young birds hatch from eggs. • Feathers cover most of a bird’s body. But not all feathers are the • same. Some feathers help keep a bird warm. Other feathers • help birds fly. • What are 5 traits of birds? • For more information on types of birds, read pg. A56
Amphibians • Amphibians are animals that begin life in the water and move ontoland as adults. • A tadpole grows into a frog, it spends more time out of the water. • Amphibians lay eggs in the water. The eggs stay there until they hatch. • Most young amphibians live in the water, most adult amphibians live on land, but stay close to the water. • Most amphibians have moist skin. • What are three traits of an amphibian? • Read page A61 on the Frog Metamorphosis!
Fish • Fish are animals that live their whole lives in water. Like young amphibians,fish have gills. The gills are on the sides of a fish’s head. The gills take inoxygen as water moves over them. • Most fish are covered with scales. Scales are thin, small, flat plates that help protect the fish. • Different fish have many different shapes and sizes. Like other animals, some fish eat plants and others eat animals. Most fish lay eggs, but some fish give birth to live young. • What are two traits fish have?
Reptiles • Reptiles are land animals that have dry skin covered by scales. They live mostlyon land and reptiles use lungs to breathe air. Reptiles that spend a lot of time in water must come to the surface to breathe air. • Example: Crocodiles, often stays near the surface in water, but its nose and eyes are above the water to breathe and see. • Many reptiles hatch from eggs laid on land. The eggs have a tough, leathery shell. • Other reptiles are born live. Either way, most of the young are able to meet their needs as soon as they are born, unlike most mammals.
There are three main groups of reptiles. Lizards and snakes are in one group. Their bodies have rows of scales that overlap. Most lizards live in warm climates. They have four legs and long tails. Snakes don’t have legs. They move by pushing their bodies against the ground. Alligators and crocodiles are another reptile group. They live in water, and come out to sun themselves. Tortoises and turtles are the third group. They have shells. Tortoises live on land, turtles live in water. Types of Reptiles:
Animal Adaptations • Animals (and plants!) survive in their environment in which they live because they have certain features or adaptations. The shape and the size of an animal’s body must be suited to its surroundings. • The way an animal moves is another adaptation. In the African savanna, animals must be able to move quickly to escape their enemies.
Adaptations… Camouflage • Many animals living in the rainforest must hide from their enemies and their prey. Many rainforest animals use camouflage to blend in with the colors and shadows of the rainforest to avoid becoming someone else’s dinner! Their colors, patterns, and shapes disguise them and helps animals blend in with their surroundings.
Adaptations…Mimicry • Some animals have warning features that help protect them. Their colorful markings tell others that they are not good to eat. The colors and patterns on their bodies mimic the patterns of dangerous or bad-tasting animals. • This makes their enemies stay away from them. • Imitating something else is called mimicry.
Adaptations… hibernations & migration • Birds are able to escape their harsh environments by flying to a more suitable climate during cold winter months. This escape is called migration. • If the environment of a plant or animal slowly changes, then the plant or animal must change or adapt itself to the new environment or die out. If the environment changes too quickly, the animal will die out.
Adaptations: Camel • The camel is well adapted to life in the hot, dry desert environment with the heat, sand, wind and a lack of water. It would not survive in other environments, like the polar regions or the rainforest. • The camel’s body is adapted in several ways to life in the desert. In blowing sand it can close its nostrils into narrow slits, and its long eyelashes protect its eyes. Thick hair grows in a camel’s ears which helps keep out sand. The camel has wide foot pads that help it to walk on loose moving sand without sinking in.