Pilot Certificates, Regulations, Commercial Pilot Privileges & Limitations AF 202 Chris Dimoulis
Objectives • Review of Pilot Certificates, Endorsements and Flight Time regulations. • What are the requirements needed to become a Commercial Pilot? • What are the Privileges & Limitations of a Commercial License? • What type of work can I do with a Commercial License?
Pilot Certificates and Endorsements Category Class Type Rating Endorsements Additional Regulations
Category • With respect to pilot certification, rating, privileges, & limitations: A broad classification of aircraft. Examples: airplane, rotorcraft, glider, etc. • With respect to certification of aircraft, it means grouping of aircraft based upon intended use of operating limitations. Examples: Transport, Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, etc.
Class • As used with respect to the pilot certification, rating, privileges, & limitations of airmen, means a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics. Examples: single engine, multiengine, land, water, helicopter, etc. • In respect to certification of aircraft- broad grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples: airplane, rotorcraft, glider, balloon, landplane, seaplane.
Type Ratings • Are required to act as PIC of: • Large aircraft – Weighing above 12,500 lbs (except lighter-than-air) • Turbojet-powered airplanes • Other aircraft specified by the Administrator through aircraft type certificate procedures
Additional Training and Endorsements 61.31 • Complex Airplanes • High-Performance Airplanes • Operating pressurized aircraft capable of operation at high altitudes • Tail- wheel Airplanes • Towing a Glider
Complex Airplanes • An aircraft that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller; or in the case of seaplanes flaps and a controllable pitch propeller. • Receive and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor in a complex airplane • Receive a one-time endorsement in the pilot’s logbook
High-Performance • An airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower • Receive and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor in a high-performance aircraft, or in a flight simulator or flight training device • Receive a one-time logbook endorsement that certifies the person is proficient to operate a high performance airplane
High-Altitude • A pressurized aircraft (an aircraft that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,ooo feet MSL) • Receive a logbook endorsement and log ground training covering: • High-Altitude aerodynamics and meteorology • Respiration • Effects, symptoms, causes of hypoxia, and altitude sickness • Effects of prolonged usage of supplemental oxygen • Causes and effects and prevention of gas expansion and gas bubble formation • Incidents due to decompression • Physiological aspects of high-altitude flight
High-Altitude Continued • Flight training must include: • Normal cruise flight operations while operating above 25,ooo feet MSL • Proper emergency procedures for simulated rapid decompression without actually depressurizing the aircraft • Emergency descent procedures
Tail wheel • Receive and log flight training from an authorized instructor in a tail wheel airplane and receive an endorsement in the person’s logbook. The flight training must include at least the following maneuvers and procedures: • Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings • Wheel landings (unless not authorized by manufacturer) • Go-Around procedures
Towing a Glider 61.69 • No person may act as PIC for towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle unless that person: • Holds at least a private pilot certificate • Has logged at least 100 hours of PIC time in category, and class that is the pilot is using to tow • Has a logbook endorsement and received flight and ground training on: emergency procedures, signals used, and maximum angles of bank • Logged at least three flights as the sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft towing a glider
Misc: Pilot in Command • Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight • Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight • Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight
Misc: Logging PIC time • Is the sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft for which the pilot is rated • Sole occupant of the aircraft • Is acting as PIC in which more than one pilot is required under the type certification of AC ATP acting as PIC of an operation requiring ATP certificate Acting as a Flight Instructor Student pilot, with endorsements
Misc: Second-in-command Qualifications 61.55 • A person may serve as SIC of an aircraft type certificated for more than one required pilot flight crewmember, or in operations requiring a SIC pilot flight crewmember ONLY IF that person holds: • At least a current private pilot certificate • An instrument rating, if flight is under IFR • Appropriate pilot type rating for the aircraft
Misc: Logging SIC time • Qualified in accordance with SIC requirements 61.55, and occupies a crewmember station in an aircraft that required more than one pilot by the aircraft’s type certificate • Holds the appropriate category, class, and instrument rating (if flown in IFR) for the AC being flown, and more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the aircraft
Misc: Logging flight time 61.51 Do you need to log ALL flight time? • Training and aeronautical experience used to meet the requirements for a certificate, rating, or flight review • Aeronautical experience required for recent flight experience
Misc: Recent Flight Experience 61.57 • 3 Take offs and Landing in 90 days • Acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls • Were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if type rating is required) • Night T/O and Landing Experience • 1 hour after sunset or 1 hour before sunrise • 3 T/O & Landings to a full stop
Commercial Pilot Requirements Requirements Knowledge Flight Experience Flight time Regulations
Requirements to become a Com. Pilot • FAR 61.123 • Be at least 18 years of age • Read, write, speak, and understand English • Logbook endorsement from authorized instructor for the written • Past Knowledge test • Receive required training and logbook endorsement for the practical exam- Flight proficiency 61.127 • Past Practical Test • Hold at least a private pilot certificate • Comply with aircraft category and class rating sought
Aeronautical Knowledge 61.125 • Regulations • Accident Reporting • Basic Aerodynamics • Meteorology • Safe and efficient operation of aircraft • Weight and balance • Use of performance charts • Use of nav. facilities • Significance and effects of exceeding aircraft performance limitations • Aeronautical Decision Making and judgment • Systems • Maneuvers & procedures • Night and high altitude ops. • Procedures for ops. In Airspace System
Flight Experience 61 or 141 Part 61 25o hours total time 100 hours PIC time 50 hours cross country 20 hours 61.127 maneuvers 10 hours complex 10 hours instrument 300 mile, 3 leg, w/250 mile straight line distance XC 5 hours night/10 landings Part 141 Approved Curriculum 120 hours total (airplane) 55 hours dual given 10 hours complex 10 hours instrument 3 leg, w/250 mile straight line distance XC 5 hours night/10 landings
Random FAR of the Day 61.131 Not required to comply with night flight time if you live in and get your training in Alaska! However you will have a limitation put on your certificate HOWEVER, you must get the night flight requirement within 12 months or your certificate is void Why are Alaskans such a special people?
Commercial Pilot Privileges and Limitations What is a Commercial Pilot and limitations Commercial Pilot vs. Commercial Operator Common Carriage vs. Private Carriage What can a Commercial Pilot do? Types of Commercial Operators
The Commercial Pilot 61.133 • May act as PIC of an aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. • Commercial Pilot certificate never expires • Need 2nd class medical to perform commercial operations • Must follow recent flight experience rules like a private pilot
Limitations of a Commercial License 61.133 • A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate with an airplane category or powered-lift category rating and does not hold an instrument rating in the same category and class will be issued a commercial pilot certificate that contains the following limitations: • CAN NOT Carry Passengers for hire on cross-country flights in excess of 50 NM • CAN NOT Carry Passengers for hire at night
Commercial Pilot vs. Commercial Operator • A commercial pilot intending to conduct operations as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire should look cautiously at any proposal for revenue operating flights. • Commercial Certif. does not mean you are a Commercial Operator!! • If Common Carriage is involved there are a limited number of things that you may do with your Certificate alone.
What are Commercial Operators? • A person who for compensation or hire, engages in the carriage by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property. Where it is doubtful that the operation is for “compensation or hire,” the test is to see if it is incidental to the person’s other business or is in itself, a major enterprise for profit. • FAR part 119 governs Certification of Air Carriers & Commercial Operators
Requirements to become a Com. Operator • A person may not operate as a carrier unless: • Citizen of U.S. • Obtain an Air Carrier Certificate • Obtains Operation Specifications that prescribe authorizations, limitations, and procedures for all operations
Common Carriage AC 120-12A • Common Carriage will be involved if you are: • Holding out • Carrying Persons or Property • From Point A to Point B • For Compensation or Hire • If common carriage is involved you will need to be operating as an air carrier, commercial operator • Exceptions for this are listed out in FAR 119.1(e)
What can you do? • Work for a Commercial Operator. • Perform any of the exceptions to needing a Commercial Operator Certificate. • HOWEVER you may not operate airplanes with more than 20 passenger seat configuration or airplanes that have a payload capacity of 6,ooo pounds or more….
FAR 119.1(e)- What you can do • Student instruction • Nonstop sightseeing flights conducted with aircraft having a passenger seat configuration of 30 or less, and a payload capacity of 7,5oo lbs or less, that begin and end at the same airport, and are conducted within a 25 SM radius of that airport (Letter of Authorization 91.147) • Ferry or training flights
FAR 119.1(e)- What you can do • Aerial work operations, including • Crop dusting, seeding, spraying, and bird chasing • Banner towing • Aerial photography or survey • Fire fighting • Helicopter operations in construction or repair work • Power line or pipeline patrol • Nonstop flights conduced within a 25 SM radius of the airport of takeoff conducting intentional parachute operations
Commercial Operator Types and FARs • 119- Certification of Air Carriers and Commercial Operators • 121-Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental • 125-Certification and Operation: Airplanes Having a Seating Capacity of 20 or More Passengers or a Maximum Payload Capacity of 6,000 Pounds or Greater • 129- Operations: Foreign Air Carriers and Foreign Operators of U.S. Registered Aircraft Engaged in Common Carriage
Commercial Operator Types and FARs • 135- Operation Requirements: Commuter and On-Demand Operation • 136 – Commercial Air Tours and National Park Air Tour Management • 137- Agricultural aircraft Operations
FAR 135 PIC Qualifications 135 PIC Requirements • VFR operations: • Commercial Pilot License with appropriate category, class, and type rating • 500 hours flight time, including at least 100 hours of x-country, at least 25 of which were at night • Hold an instrument rating
FAR 135.243 PIC Qualifications • IFR operations: • Holds at least a commercial pilot certificate with appropriate category, class, and type ratings • 1200 flight hours, including 500 x-country, 100 hours of night, and 75 hours of actual or simulated instrument time at least 50 of which were in actual flight • Instrument rating or ATP • FAR 135.243: To be PIC of a 135 operation with a 10 or more passenger seat configuration, you need an ATP rating for airplanes
FAR 135 SIC Qualifications (135.245) • No 135 certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as second in command of an aircraft unless that person holds at least a commercial pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings and an instrument rating. For flight under IFR, that person must retain currency under FAR part 61
On-Demand Operations • Any operation for compensation or hire which is one of the following: • A passenger-carrying public charter where the departure time and location, as well as the arrival location are specifically negotiated with the customer • Common-carriage operation using airplanes having a passenger seat configuration of 30 seats or less and a payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or less • Private carriage operation conducted with an airplane having a passenger-seat conf. of less than 20 or payload or less than 6,000 • Scheduled op. with a frequency of less than 5 round trips per week with a nonturbojet airplane with max or 9 passengers and max payload of 7,500lbs
Flag Operation • Any scheduled operation to any point outside the U.S. conducted in a turbojet- powered airplane or an airplane which has a passenger-seat configuration of more than 9 seats or a payload of more than 7,500 pounds.
Commuter Operation • Any scheduled operation conducted in a nonturbojet-powered airplane having a maximum passenger-seat configuration of 9 seats or less and max payload of 7,500 pounds or less. • A commuter operation must be scheduled with a frequency of at least 5 round trips per week on at least 1 route according to published flight schedules
The Next Step: ATP • Airline Transport Pilot • 23 years of age • Hold 1st class medical • 1,500 flights hours • 250 PIC • 500 x-country • 100 night • 75 instrument experience