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States of Consciousness. Sleep Hypnosis Drugs. Waking and Sleeping Rhythms. When we are awake we are?. In a state of Consciousness. Our awareness of ourselves and our surroundings. The central theory of conscious behavior can be found in:. Conscious. Subconscious. Unconscious. D A Y

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states of consciousness

States of Consciousness




when we are awake we are
When we are awake we are?

In a state of Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our surroundings.
























What are some common


why do we daydream
Why do we daydream?
  • They can help us prepare for future events.
  • They can nourish our social development.
  • Can substitute for impulsive behavior.

Fantasy Prone Personalities

  • Someone who imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness and who spends considerable time fantasizing.
biological rhythms
Biological Rhythms

Annual Cycles: seasonal variations (bears hibernation, seasonal affective disorder)

28 day cycles: menstrual cycle.

24 hour cycle: our circadian rhythm

90 minute cycle: sleep cycles.

circadian rhythm
Circadian Rhythm
  • Our 24 hour biological clock.
  • Our body temperature and awareness changes throughout the day.
  • It is best to take a test or study during your circadian peaks.

How can the circadian rhythm help explain jet lag?

Knee pad light exposure experiment

Sunday night insomnia

sleep stages
Sleep Stages
  • There are 5 identified stages of sleep.
  • It takes about 90-100 minutes to pass through the 5 stages.
  • The brain’s waves will change according to the sleep stage you are in.
  • The first four sages and know as NREM sleep..
  • The fifth stage is called REM sleep.
stage one
Stage One
  • This is experienced as falling to sleep and is a transition stage between wake and sleep.
  • It usually lasts between 1 and 5 minutes and occupies approximately 2-5 % of a normal night of sleep.
  • eyes begin to roll slightly.
  • consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow))
  • brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those present while awake

Hallucinations can occur and feeling of falling.

stage two
Stage Two
  • This follows Stage 1 sleep and is the "baseline" of sleep.
  • This stage is part of the 90 minute cycle and occupies approximately 45-60% of sleep.
stage three four
Stage Three & Four
  • Stages three and four are "Delta" sleep or "slow wave" sleep and may last 15-30 minutes.
  • It is called "slow wave" sleep because brain activity slows down dramatically from the "theta" rhythm of Stage 2 to a much slower rhythm called "delta" and the height or amplitude of the waves increases dramatically.
stage three and four continued
Stage Three and Four (continued)
  • Contrary to popular belief, it is delta sleep that is the "deepest" stage of sleep (not REM) and the most restorative.
  • It is delta sleep that a sleep-deprived person's brain craves the first and foremost.
  • In children, delta sleep can occupy up to 40% of all sleep time and this is what makes children unawake able or "dead asleep" during most of the night.
stage five rem sleep
Stage Five: REM SLEEP
  • REM: Rapid Eye Movement
  • This is a very active stage of sleep.
  • Composes 20-25 % of a normal nights sleep.
  • Breathing, heart rate and brain wave activity quicken.
  • Vivid Dreams can occur.
  • From REM, you go back to Stage 2
  • Body is essentially paralyzed during REM.
  • Genitals become aroused. Erections and clitoral engorgement.
  • “Morning Erections” are from final REM stage.

A typical 25 year old man has an erection during half of his sleep.

A 65 year old- one quarter.

how much sleep do we need
How much sleep do we need?
  • We all need different amounts of sleep depending on our age and genetics.
  • But we ALL sleep- about 25 years on average.

How do you feel when you don’t get enough sleep?

why do we need sleep two theories
Why do we need sleep?(Two theories)
  • Ecological Niche: back in the day, darkness meant death, those that slept did not go out, thus did not die. Sleep protects us.
  • Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
  • Not your once in a while (I have a big test tomorrow) having trouble getting to sleep episodes.
  • Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours you sleep every night.
  • Primary versus Secondary insomnia.

60 Million

  • Characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks.
  • Lapses directly into REM sleep (usually during times of stress or joy).
sleep apnea
Sleep Apnea
  • A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings.
night terrors
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified.

Occur in Stage 4, not REM, and are not often remembered.

Night Terrors
sleepwalking somnambulism
  • Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder effecting an estimated 10 percent of all humans at least once in their lives.
  • Sleep walking most often occurs during deep non-REM sleep (stage 3 or stage 4 sleep) early in the night.

Symptoms and Features:

  • Ambulation (walking or moving about) that occurs during sleep. The onset typically occurs in pre-pubertal children.
  • difficulty in arousing the patient during an episode
  • amnesia following an episode
  • episodes typically occur in the first third of the sleep episode
  • polysomnographic monitoring demonstrates the onset of an episode during stage 3 or 4 sleep
  • other medical and psychiatric disorders can be present but do not account for the symptom
  • the ambulation is not due to other sleep disorders such as REM sleep behavior disorder or sleep terrors.
  • Fatigue (which is not the same as drowsiness), 
  • stress and anxiety 
  • The sleep walking activity may include simply sitting up and appearing awake while actually asleep, getting up and walking around, or complex activities such as moving furniture, going to the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and similar activities. Some people even drive a car while actually asleep. The episode can be very brief (a few seconds or minutes) or can last for 30 minutes or longer.
  • One common misconception is that a sleep walker should not be awakened. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleep walker, although it is common for the person to be confused or disoriented for a short time on awakening. Another misconception is that a person cannot be injured when sleep walking. Actually, injuries caused by such things as tripping and loss of balance are common for sleep walkers.
  • A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind.

Manifest Content: the remembered storyline of a dream.

Latent Content: the underlying meaning of a dream.

latent content
Latent Content

Dream Interpretation

why do we dream

Why do we Dream?

Three Theories

freud s wish fulfillment theory
Freud’s wish-fulfillment Theory
  • Dreams are the key to understanding our inner conflicts.
  • Ideas and thoughts that are hidden in our unconscious.
  • Manifest and latent content
information processing theory
Information-Processing Theory
  • Dreams act to sort out and understand the memories that you experience that day.
  • REM sleep does increase after stressful events.
physiological function theories
Physiological Function Theories

Activation-Synthesis Theory:

  • during the night our brainstem releases random neural activity, dreams may be a way to make sense of that activity.
rem rebound
REM Rebound
  • The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
  • What will happen if you don’t get a good nights sleep for a week, and then sleep for 10 hours?

You will dream a lot.