The Holocaust An interactive learning experience Click the button to proceed
Directions • Buttons are located to guide you through the program This button will take you to the NEXT page This button will take you to the PREVIOUS page This button will take you to the HOME page This button will take you to THIS page This button allows you to EXIT the program
Objectives After completing this program you should be able to: • Identify events that occurred during the Holocaust • Identify the people affected in the Holocaust • Recognize the locations and names of concentration camps Also you will complete a short quiz testing your knowledge on those things.
Why Is This Important To Learn? • Genocides, like the Holocaust, occur more often than we think. By being informed of events in the past we can try to stop them from occurring in the future.
Home Page Definitions Statistics Timeline of Events Reflection Who Was Targeted Photos Concentration Camps Quiz Exit Program
Definitions • Genocide: The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. • Holocaust: The systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. • A great or complete devastation or destruction, especially by fire
Timeline of Events Click on the year for more information • 1933 • 1934 • 1935 • 1936 • 1937 • 1938 • 1939 • 1940 • 1941 • 1942 • 1943 • 1944 • 1945
Timeline 1933 - Dachau concentration camp opens near Munich - Buchenwald opens in central Germany -Sachsenhausen opens near Berlin - Ravensbrück for women opens - Nazis boycott Jewish opened shops and businesses - “Aryan” and “Non-Aryan” defined, Jewish are “Non-Aryan” -Restrictions are placed on Jews (E.g. prohibited to own land, prohibited to be newspaper editors, excluded from the Arts) Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1934: - Jews not allowed national health insurance - Hitler becomes the Führer 1935: - Women forced to have abortions to stop spread of hereditary diseases - Nuremburg Race Laws against Jews decreed Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1936: -Olympics begin in Berlin—Temporarily refrained from restrictions against Jews -Nazis set up an Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortions (by healthy women) 1937: -Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, being accountants or dentists. - “Eternal Jew” traveling exhibition opens in Munich Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1938: - Nazis order Jews to register wealth and property - Jews ordered to register their businesses -the U.S. convenes a League of Nations conference with delegates from 32 countries to consider helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but results in inaction as no country will accept them - Jews prohibited from trading and providing specific commercial services - All Jews over 15 years are required to get an identity card from the police - Jewish doctors prohibited from practicing medicine Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1938: --Jewish women required to add Sarah and men required to add Israel to their names on all legal documents including passports -Jews are prohibited from all legal practices -Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red ”J” -Nazis arrest 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expel them back to Poland which refuses them entry, leaving them in 'no-man's land' near the Polish border for several months -Jewish pupils are expelled from all non-Jewish German schools Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1939: -Nazis force Jews to hand over all gold and silver items -Jews lose rights as tenants and are relocated into Jewish houses -Jews in Germany are forbidden to be outdoors after 8 p.m. in winter and 9 p.m. in summer - England and France declare war on Germany -German Jews are forbidden to own wireless (radio) sets Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1939: - Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany -Evacuation of Jews from Vienna -Forced labor decree issued for Polish Jews aged 14 to 60 -Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10 Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1940: -First deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland -The Lodz Ghetto in occupied Poland is sealed off from the outside world with 230,000 Jews locked inside -Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1940: -Deportation of 29,000 German Jews from Baden, the Saar, and Alsace-Lorraine into Vichy France - The Krakow Ghetto is sealed off containing 70,000 Jews - The Warsaw Ghetto, containing over 400,000 Jews, is sealed off Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1941: -A pogrom in Romania results in over 2,000 Jews killed -German Jews ordered into forced labor -Romanian troops conduct a pogrom against Jews in the town of Jassy, killing 10,000 - Ghettos established at Kovno, Minsk, Vitebsk, and Zhitomer. - Government of Vichy France seizes Jewish owned property Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1941: - Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational -The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz - German Jews ordered to wear yellow stars -Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich -Japanese attack United States at Pearl Harbor. The next day the U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan Timeline Homepage
Zyklon-B Zyklon-B pellets (hydrocyanic acid) vaporize when exposed to air. Originally intended for commercial use as a disinfectant and an insecticide, the Nazis discovered through experimentation the gas could be used to kill humans. Prisoners at Auschwitz and other killing centers were forced into the air-tight chambers that had been disguised by the Nazis to look like shower rooms. The Zyklon pellets were then dumped into the chambers via special air shafts or openings in the ceiling.The pellets would then vaporize, giving off a noticeable bitter almond odor. Upon being breathed in, the vapors combined with red blood cells, depriving the human body of vital oxygen, causing unconsciousness, and then death through oxygen starvation.
Timeline 1941: - Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taken there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from the Reich to Lodz. Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1942: -Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau - Wannsee Conference to coordinate the “Final Solution” - Belzec and Sobibor become operational, both are fitted with carbon monoxide gas chambers - German Jews are banned from using public transportation Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1942: - A second gas chamber is built at Auschwitz due to the number of Jews arriving -Himmler grants permission for sterilization experiments at Auschwitz - Treblinka is opened with gas chambers and pits to burn the dead - Reduction of food rations for Jews in Germany -Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek -Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1943: - First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto - The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated -Himmler orders liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland -Two hundred Jews escape from Treblinka extermination camp during a revolt Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1943: -The Danish Underground helps transport 7,220 Danish Jews to safety -Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, 50 will survive - Jews continue to be sent to Auschwitz, while most other concentration camps are dismantled and trees are planted Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1944: - Nazis raid French homes for Jewish children - Beginning of deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz -D-Day: Allied landing in Normandy -Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdenek -The Lodz Ghetto is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz -Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1944: -Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen - Himmler orders the destruction of crematories at Auschwitz - Oskar Schindler saves 1,200 Jews by moving them to his hometown of Brunnlitz Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1945: - As Allies advance, the Nazis conduct death marches of concentration camps - Soviets liberate Budapest and Warsaw - Nazis evacuate 66,000 from Auschwitz - Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz - Ohrdruf camp is liberated - Allies liberate Buchenwald - 40,000 prisoners freed from Bergen-Belsen Timeline Homepage
Timeline 1945: - U.S. Army liberates Dachau - Hitler commits suicide - 33,000 inmates are freed from concentration camps - Theresienstadt taken over by Red Cross - Mauthausen liberated - Unconditional German surrender signed - Opening of Nuremburg International Military Tribunal Timeline Homepage
Who Was Targeted Any group deemed “racially inferior” - Jews - Gypsies - The Disabled - Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others) - Jehovah’s Witnesses - Homosexuals - Communists - Socialists
Concentration Camps • In Germany: • Bergen-Belsen • Ravensbrück • Mittelbau • Buchenwald • Dachau • Gross-Rosen • Sachsenhausen In Netherlands: - Vught In Czechoslovakia - Theresienstadt In Austria: - Mauthausen In Poland (Death camps): - Stuttho - Chelmno - Belzec - Maidanek - Treblinka - Sobibor - Auschwitz-Birkenau
Reflection Take some time to reflect on the following questions, writing down your responses if necessary. • What would you do if you were faced with a situation similar to the Holocaust? • If you had been around during the Holocaust, what do you think you would have done? Would you have tried to change anything?
Quiz • Question One • Question Two • Question Three • Question Four • Question Five
Quiz • Question One: • Where were all of all of the death camps? • A) Germany • B) Czechoslovakia • C) Poland
Oops! Sorry, that answer is incorrect. Try again, or review the section.
Correct! Great Job! You can now move on to the next question.
Quiz • Question Two: • What was Zyklon-B used for? A) To kill people in concentration camps B) To clean rooms in concentration camps C) To stop infections in concentration camps