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Module 1. IT. Concepts of information technology. Part 1. Types of Computers. Mainframe Computers PC ( Personal Computer ) Networked Computer Laptop PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant ). Mainframe computer. Description

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module 1
Module 1


Concepts of information technology

types of computers
Types of Computers
  • Mainframe Computers
  • PC ( Personal Computer )
  • Networked Computer
  • Laptop
  • PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant )
mainframe computer
Mainframe computer
  • Description

Are big , powerful , expensive computers used by most large organization

  • Capacity :

very power full computers

  • Speed

Very Fast in processing data

  • Costs :

very expensive

  • Users

Large companies including banks...

pc personal computer
( PC) Personal computer
  • Description

IBM invented the pc since 1981

  • Capacity :

large hard disk

  • Speed

Fast normally measured in GHz

  • Costs :

Getting cheaper by day

  • Users

Home users , Doctors , Education …..

networked computer
Networked Computer
  • Description

Allow you to connect two or more than one computer together

  • Capacity :

large hard disk

  • Speed

Fast normally measured in GHz

  • Costs :

A pc need inexpensive card to connect to network

  • Users

Home users , Doctors , Education , any one…..

  • Description

Small , Portable , Can run on batteries as well as main power

  • Capacity :

Large hard disk, often less powerful than PC which is equivalent in price

  • Speed

Fast normally measured in GHz – Speed specification are less than PC which is equivalent in price

  • Costs :

Exceeds when compared with PC

  • Users

Business users , People on the move , Educational user

pda personal digital assistant
PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant )
  • Description

Use a special pen rather than keyboard, can store and retrieve information

  • Capacity :

Much smaller than PC

  • Speed

Much slower than PC

  • Costs :

Exceeds when compared to PC

  • Users :

Mostly Business Users

system unit
System Unit
  • The name given to Main PC box
  • It Houses items like ….
  • Mother Board
  • CPU
  • RAM
  • CD
  • Floppy Disk
system mother board
System (Mother ) Board
  • All items of the system unit attached to Mother board , either directly or via cable
cpu central processing unit
CPU (Central Processing Unit )
  • IT is one of the most important components within Computer
  • It is the brain within your Computer
  • It performs most of the calculation within the computer
  • It determines How fast you Computer will run
  • It is measured by GHz
  • 2 GHz Pentium is much faster than 1GHz Pentium
ram random access memory
RAM ( Random Access Memory )
  • It’s where the operating system is loaded when you switch on your computer
  • It’s where your application are copied to when you start application (such as word processing )
  • Volatile and changeable
  • The more RAM you Have installed in you Computer is better
  • It is measured by MB
  • These days you will commonly find over 512 MB of Ram installed
rom bios read only memory basic input out put system
ROM - BIOS ( Read only Memory – Basic input out put system )
  • It is special chip held on your computers’ mother board
  • It contains Software which makes your computer work with your operating system
  • It is Non volatile, unchangeable
serial port
Serial Port
  • It is socket located at the back of your computer which enable you to connect items to the computer , such as Modem
parallel port
Parallel Port
  • It is socket located at the back of your computer which enable you to connect items to the computer , such as Modem
usb universal serial bus
USB (Universal Serial Bus )
  • It is Relatively new item within the PC
  • You will see one or more USB Sockets at the back of Your computer
  • It enables you to Plug in devices such as Printer, Scanner, Digital camera .
input device
Input Device ….

Input device allow you to input Data to the computer

  • Key board
  • Mouse
  • Tracks ball
  • Touch pad
  • Light pen
  • Joy stick
  • Scanner
  • Web Cam
  • Digital Camera
key board
Key Board
  • Key board is the commonest way of entering data to the computer
  • The mouse came into common use on PC with the introduction of Microsoft operating system (Windows) .
  • Before this (DOS) operating system had been controlled via the keyboard
tracker ball
Tracker ball
  • A tracker ball is an alternative to the mouse.
  • A tracker ball is favorite by graphic designers.
touch pad
Touch pad
  • Touch pad can be used by graphic artists
light pen
Light pen
  • A light pen is used to allow users to point to areas on screen and its often used to select menu
joy stick
Joy stick
  • Used in games
  • A scanner allows you to scan printed material and convert it into a file format which may be used within PC
web cam
Web Cam
  • Ever since it was invented , the web has become increasingly interactive .
  • It allows you to communicate in two ways not just text communication but also sound and video
digital camera
Digital Camera
  • A digital camera can be used in the same way of traditional camera but instead of storing images on rolls of films , the images are storing in memory housed within the camera ,this images can easily be transferred to your computer
output device
Output Device ….

Output devices allow you to output information From the computer

  • Computer monitor
  • Flat screen monitor
  • Computer presentation projection device
  • Printers
  • speakers
computer monitor
Computer monitor
  • The VDU ( Visual Display Unit ) is the computer screen used to outputinformation.
flat screen monitor
Flat screen monitor
  • Flat screen computer monitor have become available , these take less size on the desk and use less energy than the traditional
computer presentation projection device
Computer presentation projection device
  • It can be attached to your computer and it is useful to display presentations to group of people.
  • Laser Printer
  • Color laser printer
  • Inkjet printers
  • Dot matrix printers
  • Plotter
output input device
Output / Input Device ….

Some devices are both input / output devices

  • Touch screen
storage device
Storage Device
  • Hard desk ( Internal – External )
  • Zip Driver
  • Diskette
  • CD desk
  • DVD driver
  • Jaz Disks
  • Back up tape
hard disk
Hard disk
  • Internal Hard Disks
  • Speed:
    • Very fast!
    • The speed of a hard disk is often measured by “RPM" speed, The smaller this number the slower the hard disk.


    • Enormous! Often in excess of 10 Gigabytes. A Gigabyte is equivalent to 1024 Megabytes.
  • Cost:

Getting cheaper by the day

hard disks
Hard Disks

External Hard Disks

  • Speed:
    • Normally slower than internal disks, but more expensive, offer the same performance as internal hard disks.
  • Capacity:
    • Same as internal disks.
  • Cost:
    • More expensive than internal disks.
dvd drives
DVD Drives
  • Speed:
    • Much faster than CD-ROM drives but not as fast as hard disks.
  • Capacity:
    • Up to 30 G bytes.
  • Cost:
    • Slightly higher than CD-ROM drives.
cd rom compact disc
CD-ROM (Compact Disc)
  • Speed:
    • Much slower than hard disks.
  • Capacity:
    • Around 650 Mbytes.
zip disks
Zip Disks
  • Speed:
    • Slower than hard disks but ideal for backup.
  • Capacity:
    • 100 or 250 Megabytes.
jaz disks
Jaz Disks


    • Slower than hard disks but ideal for backup.
  • Capacity:
    • Around 2 Gigabytes (2048 Megabytes).
diskettes floppy disks
Diskettes (Floppy Disks)

It can be write protected to prevent data from changes or infection of viruses.

  • Speed:
    • Very slow!
  • Capacity:
    • Normally 1.44 Mbytes.
  • Cost:
    • Very cheap.
back up tape
Back up Tape
  • Used to archiving the files that are not needed
storage measurement
Storage measurement
  • Tera byte = 1024 Giga byte
  • Giga byte = 1024 Mega byte
  • Mega byte = 1024 Kilo byte
  • Kilo byte =1024 Byte
  • Byte = 8 Bit

Types of Software

  • Operating System
  • Application Program
  • Unformatted disk need operating system data written to them before they can store files.
  • Pre formatted disk can be used immediately to store data.
  • Full formatting completely erase the previous contents of a disk.
  • You can purchase preformatted disk.
  • You can reformat a used floppy disk.
operating system
Operating System
  • The operating system is a special type of programs which is loaded automatically when you start your computer
  • There are number of different types of operating system
  • DOS
  • Windows
  • Unix and Linux
  • Mac/OS
  • IBM invented Pc Since 1981 And used DOS Operating system.
  • This operating system was very basic.
  • You had to be computer expert just to understand how to use computer
  • It was not user – friendly
  • Microsoft introduced windows which is more powerful than DOS and which is commonly used on PC today.
  • There are numbers of different types of windows
  • The main advantage of windows that it has a Graphical User Interface ( GUI )
graphical user interface gui
Graphical User Interface ( GUI )
  • It is part of operating system which display windows and drop down menus
  • The system using windows, icons to operate a computer
  • It enables you to drive your computer by using mouse
  • Advantage
  • All programs look similar and when switches from a program supplied by one manufacturer to different program supplied by another manufacturer , you will find the transition very easy
  • By GUI its easier to learn and use Application Program
unix linux
Unix & Linux
  • Are other examples of Operating Systems which may be run on PCs
Other Types of computers , Such as Manufactured by Apple have a completely different operating System called Mac/OS .
application software
Application Software
  • An application program is the type of program which you use when the operating system has been loaded.
  • Can run more than one at the same time.
  • Can be used to edit data type

Example ….

  • Word Processor

Create letters, Faxes, Memos

  • Spread Sheet ( Excel )
  • Make financial projects
  • With Charts
  • Database ( Access )
  • Sort large amount of information
  • Presentation ( Power point )

Crate overhead projection or slides

  • Desktop publish
  • Producing a newspaper with
  • complex page layout
  • Accounts payroll ( Sage )
  • (Make financial projects )
  • large Organizations
things to avoid
Things to avoid
  • Dust
  • Drinking and eating over the key board
  • Heat
  • Moisture
  • Don’t move the system while it switched on
  • Follow the correct steps to shutdown your computer
  • Don’t place object in the top of monitor
  • Don’t place floppy disk near monitor . Monitor produce a strong electromagnetic
system cycle
System Cycle
  • Most project work in cycle
  • First step ( System analysis):

Analyze the need of computer user.

  • Second Step ( Design )

Draw up the plans on how it can be implemented on a real.

  • Third Step ( Programming )

Convert the design to actual plan.

  • Final Step ( Testing )

Testing the software.