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Unit Four

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Unit Four

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  1. Unit Four

  2. Teaching Objectives • Enlarge vocabulary • Talk about the Information Superhighway • Learn to read for details • Learn to write about the Information Age

  3. Sections Section AThe Telecommunications Revolution Section BThe Information Superhighway Section CPrivacy in Information Age

  4. Section A The Telecommunications Revolution

  5. Table of Contents 1.Background Information 2.Warming-up Activities 3.Text Analysis 4.Vocabulary and Structure 5.Vocabulary Testing 6.Translation & Writing

  6. Background Information Telecommunications Telecommunications, from Greek, means “communications at a distance”. Telecommunications through voice, data, and image communication is changing the world. Two major trends have occurred in the technology that is applicable to telecommunications. The first trend has been the incredible increase in the processing power of digital computers, namely, dramatic decreases in physical size along with equally dramatic increases in complexity, speed, and capacity. The second trend has been the explosive growth in transmission capacity through the widespread use of optical fiber across continents and under oceans. These two trends have had impressive long-term consequences for telecommunications around the world. The Internet and the World Wide Web have already created a global system for the access of information.

  7. Information age The information age is an era of fundamental and global change in intellectual, philosophical, cultural and social terms. Today’s information age began with the telegraph. It was the first instrument to transform information into electrical form and transmit it reliably over long distances. New techniques of encoding and distributing digital information are pacing the spread of the information age throughout society.

  8. Information superhighway A name first used by (former) U.S. Vice President Al Gore for the vision of a global, high-speed communications network that will carry voice, data, video, and other forms of information all over the world, and that will make it possible for people to send e-mail, get up-to-the-minute news, and access business, government and educational information. The Internet is already providing many of these features, via telephone networks, cable TV services, online service providers, and satellites. Who first created the idea of “constructing” a superhighway? In 1955, Albert Gore, then Tennessee Democratic senator, put forward in the U.S. Congress the act of interstate superhighway, which was later proved to have greatly promoted the American economic development. In 1991, his son, Al Gore, proposed another act—high performance computing act, HPCA. For the first time, HPCA demanded high performance computer and communications. The core of the act was to set up a national research and education network, NREN. 

  9. Warming-up Activities Comprehension of the Text • Why are developing countries investing great sums of money in telecommunications networks? • 2. What does China hope to achieve? And what does Shanghai hope to achieve? • 3. What do some people fear?

  10. Referencefor Comprehension Questions (1) • Their investments have arisen from the major factors as follows: One is that the transfer of information has become a must in promoting the foreign and domestic investment; another is that, with our world depending in a greater degree on information for its progress, it is natural for telecommunications to take up the role as a competitive power between countries; and still another is that telecommunications determines to a large extent the all-dimensional development in both urban and rural areas.

  11. Referencefor Comprehension Questions (1) • China hopes to become an important part of the information superhighway. And Shanghai wants to realize its dream of becoming a major financial center. • 3. Some people fear that some developing countries act too hastily or push themselves too hard in fulfilling their purposes. In some sense, there is reason to be anxious and worried about the fact. Since the U.S. and European countries have covered a long way to reach the present high level of development, it is of course no easy job for some developing countries to achieve it in one jump.

  12. Text analysis Text main idea Telecommunications is widely conceived as a key to developing countries’ dream of jumping into the modern world. Although there is some dispute as to how fast they can push ahead with their plans, different developing countries still are seeking their own ways of leaping over their backwardness with one jump in this direction. Surely, they will catch up with developed countries on the information superhighway as long as they persist in their efforts.

  13. Text Structure Part II Part III Part IV Part I Para1-2: The advantages of telecommunications technologies Para 3: The questions Para 4-10: Different solutions Para 11: conclusion

  14. Main idea for Part I Advanced telecommunications will boost living standards in the developing world, speed its step into Information Age, and accelerate the rate of its economic development, etc.

  15. Developing technique (1) Contrast (对比法) It may take a decade for many countries in Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe to improve transportation, power supplies, and other utilities. By installing optical fiber, digital switches, and the latest wireless transmission systems, a parade of urban centers and industrial zones from Beijing to Budapest are stepping directly into the Information Age. Modern communications “will give countries like China and Vietnam a huge advantage over countries stuckwith old technology”

  16. Main idea for Part II This part puts forward a question for consideration: How fast to develop telecommunications technologies in developing countries?

  17. Developing technique (2) How fast these nations should push ahead is amatterof debate. Many experts think Vietnam is going too far by requiring that all mobile phones be expensive digital models, when it is desperate for any phones, period. Exemplification (例证法)

  18. Main idea for Part III This part deals with how 6 different countries or regions carry out their telecommunications transformation. Each of them tries to seek different ways out of its own problems.

  19. Developing technique (3) Comparison and contrast (对比法) China has the money to invest. (Implied) China. A winner. By the end of 1995, China’s major cities are getting the basic infrastructure to become major parts of the information superhighway. Telecommunications helps Shanghai to realize its dream of becoming a top financial center. Russian economy is stuck in recession and it barely has the money to even scratch the surface of the problem. Russia. A loser. (Implied) Nothing mentioned to show achievements so far.

  20. Vocabulary and Structure words & phrases patterns • to leap over • to promise to do sth. • to be stuck with • to push ahead • to be desperate for sth. • to separate A from B • to pump/pour sth. into… • to scratch the surface of sth. • across the entire width and breadth of a place • as compared to • 3. to become the rage among… • 4. to move ahead • in/with one jump • to make a bold leap

  21. leap over:跨越 words & phrases 活学活用 爱的力量可以使两个民族跨越时空,和睦相处。 The power of love enables two peoples to leap over time and space and live in harmony with each other.

  22. promise to do sth. :有望做某事 活学活用 瑞雪兆丰年。 A seasonable snow promises to bless the crops in the coming year.

  23. be stuck/overcome with…:无法摆脱/战胜 光明的真正含义不在于你生活中有没有黑暗,而在于你是否被黑暗所战胜。 活学活用 The true meaning of light lies not in whether there is any dark in your life but in whether or not you are overcome with dark.

  24. push ahead/forward (with):坚决进行(下去) 一旦心中确定了目标,不管有任何艰难困苦,都要勇往直前。 活学活用 Once you have a goal set in mind, just push forward with it, regardless of any hardships involved.

  25. separate A from B: 区分A与B 活学活用 一般来说,鉴别官场上廉洁与腐败的试金石是金钱 In general, the litmus test for separating honesty from corruption in official circles is money.

  26. 6. to be desperate for sth./to do sth.:急需······ 请节约用水!近些年,越来越多的地方严重缺水 活学活用 Please save water! More and more places have been desperate for water in recent years.

  27. 7. to pump/pour sth. into…:把······投入/灌输······之中 教育并非向学生头脑里灌输事实,而是最大限度地开发其智力. 活学活用 Education is not a matter of pumping facts into students’ heads, but a matter of tapping their intellectual resources to the fullest.

  28. 8. to scratch the surface of sth. 触及表面;略知皮毛 活学活用 研究生应该精通自己的专业,而不是对其略知皮毛。 Post-graduates are supposed to be expert in their areas of study, rather than to scratch the surface of their fields.

  29. 1. across the entire width and breadth of a place整个(某个)地方 patterns 国庆节期间,神州大地到处充满着祥和、幸福的气息。 活学活用 During the National Day, there is an atmosphere of peace and happiness across the entire width and breadth of China.

  30. 2. as compared to: 与······相比之下 中国两大股市于7月30日狂跌,跌幅在5%以上,相比之下,去年同期则是上涨1%。 活学活用 China’s two stock markets nose-dived on July 30, each by over 5% , as compared to 1% rise at the same time last year.

  31. 3. to become the rage among… 在…中成为时尚 活学活用 许多业内人士认为利用宽带网登录国际互联网在未来十年将会非常流行。 Many insiders agree that logging on to the Internet through broadband networks will be all the rage in the next decade.

  32. 4. to make a bold leap 做出大胆的跃进 现代社会能创造奇迹。它可以使人在一夜之间由穷人一跃而成为富人。 活学活用 Modern society works miracles. It can enable a person to make a leap from rags to riches overnight.

  33. 5. to move ahead 名列前茅 要在事业上出人头地,与其挖掘自己的体力,不如挖掘自己的脑力。 活学活用 To move ahead in your career, you need to draw more upon your brains than upon your body.

  34. 6. in/with one jump/leap 一跃而…… 活学活用 神舟5号宇宙飞行的成功,使中国在航天技术方面一跃而跻身于世界前列。 The success of Shenzhou 5 in space-flight enabled China to rank among the world’s most advanced in space technology with one jump.

  35. Vocabulary Testing Test I Test II

  36. Test I (1) Choose the best answer to each question. 1.The class remained ____ when the teacher asked a formidable question. A) clumsy B) deaf C) dumb D) still 2. The captured criminals were ____ in chains through the streets. A) exhibited B) displayed C) paraded D) revealed

  37. Test I (2) 3. As a summary, the long story was ____ into a few sentences. A) condensed B) condemned C) concealed D) concentrated 4. She took an ____ course in cooking before her marriage. A) integral B) intentional C) intensive D) intense

  38. Test I (3) 5. Deeply cursed with prison life, the prisoners became ____ for breakout. A) discarded B) disappointed C) intensive D) desperate 6. Being very hungry, she gave the two dishes a thorough ____. A) script B) click C) lick D) scrape

  39. Test I (4) 7. The problem with the country is how to lift its economy out of ____. A) reservation B) recreation C) reversion D) recession 8. Be careful with a cat. It may ____ you if you make it angry. A) punch B) scrape C) tear D) scratch

  40. Test I (5) 9. He ____ much of his time in learning the new language. A) invested B) involved C) invented D) integrated 10. The farmers were more anxious for rain than the people in the city because they had more at ____ A) danger B) stake C) loss D) threat

  41. Test II (1) Fill in the blanks with the phrases or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. choose between date from lag behind push ahead separate from go for leap over make of stick with pump into 1. My interest in stamp collecting ______ my schooldays. 2. As far as prison reform is concerned we ______ a lot of other countries for years.

  42. Test II (2) choose between date from lag behind push ahead separate from go for leap over make of stick with pump into 3. He said that he was going to ______ the traditions established by his grandfather. 4. I probably would not normally ______ a foreign car but I really liked the steering on this one. 5. The dog ______ the fence into the field. 6. Has anyone got any suggestions as to how we can ______ things ______ ? We’re rather behind on our schedule.

  43. Test II (3) choose between date from lag behind push ahead separate from go for leap over make of stick with pump into 7. They have been ______ money ______ the business for some years without seeing any result. 8. Karen walked across the field that ______ the house ______ the stables. 9. The 1,500 meter race next week will be a chance for her to show what she’s really ______ . 10. We had to ______ leaving early or paying for a taxi.

  44. Key to Testing Keys to test I 1. C 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. A 10. B Keys to test II 1. dates form 2. lagged behind 3. stick with 4. go for 5. leapt over 6. push… ahead 7. pumping… into 8. separated … from 9. made of 10. choose between

  45. Translation (1) 1. Widespread access to information technology promises to condense the time required to change from labor-intensive assembly work to industries that involve engineering, marketing and design. 劳动密集型组装工作 广泛使用 信息技术的广泛使用有望缩短从 劳动密集型的组装工作 转向涉及工程、营销、设计等行业所需的时间。

  46. Translation (2) 2. Modern communications will give countries like China and Vietnam a huge advantage over countries stuck with old technologies. 使…更具有优势 被困于 现代通信技术将使得像中国、越南那样的国家比那些困于旧技术的国家更具有优势。

  47. Translation (3) 3. There is little dispute that communications will be a key factor separating the winners from the losers. 毋庸争辩 决定是赢家还是输家 毋庸争辩,通信技术将成为决定是赢家还是输家的关键因素。

  48. Translation (4) 4. The economy of the country is stuck in recession and it barely has the money to scratch the surface of the problem. 陷于低迷 解决基本的问题 这个国家经济陷于低迷,几乎没有资金来着手解决基本的问题。

  49. Writing  2002.6 四级考试作文及范文 Student Use of Computers 1. 上图所示为1990年,1995年,2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况, 请描述其变化; 2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途,价格或社会发展等方面加以说明); 3. 你认为目前大学生在使用计算机中有什么困难或问题。

  50. Sample Writing(1) Student Use of Computers The computer is becoming a fact of life. College students are using it as one of their chief means of study.students are spending increasingly more time on the computer. According to figures available about a known university, in 1990 the average time a student spent on the computer was only one hour per week. The number rose to about three hours in 1995. And in 2000, the number reached a dramatic high of 20 hours per week.